Operação Northwoods

Operação Northwoods


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Em 13 de março de 1962, o general Lyman Lemnitzer apresentou a Robert McNamara um memorando ultrassecreto, instando o presidente Kennedy a ordenar uma variedade de incidentes chocantes para criar uma justificativa para a invasão de Cuba. Chamado de Operação Northwoods, o memorando sugeria que o governo deveria organizar uma campanha de terror em Miami e Washington que criaria repulsa internacional contra o governo de Fidel Castro.

O presidente John F. Kennedy convocou Lyman Lemnitzer ao Salão Oval em 16 de março de 1962, onde discutiram a Operação Northwoods. Kennedy rejeitou a ideia e três meses depois disse a Lemnitzer que estava sendo transferido do Pentágono para se tornar Comandante das Forças dos EUA na Europa.

Os líderes militares não explicaram como suas bombas explodiriam apenas para ferir, e não matar, suas vítimas inocentes e como poderiam ter certeza de que as únicas vítimas seriam refugiados cubanos inocentes, e não observadores americanos. Mas os militares dos EUA há muito confiam abertamente em sua precisão.

Não há registro de como McNamara respondeu a essa proposta cínica de seus principais oficiais militares quando Lemnitzer se encontrou com ele naquela tarde de terça-feira. Mas o plano sinistro, que recebeu o codinome Operação Northwoods, não recebeu aprovação superior. Quando perguntei a ele sobre Northwoods, McNamara disse: "Não tenho nenhuma lembrança disso. Mas com certeza o teria rejeitado ... Realmente não posso acreditar que alguém estava propondo atos tão provocativos em Miami. Que estúpido ! "

Como o presidente, McNamara olhou para Lemnitzer com um desprezo mal disfarçado. "A arrogância de McNamara era surpreendente", disse um assessor de Lemnitzer. "Ele deu ao general Lemnitzer muito pouca atenção e tratou-o como um menino de escola. O general quase ficou em posição de sentido quando ele entrou na sala. Tudo era 'Sim, senhor' e 'Não, senhor'. "

Lemnitzer chegou a entrar em conflito com Jackie Kennedy, que se preocupa com a moda. "Todos nós pensamos bem dele até que ele cometeu o erro de vir à Casa Branca em uma manhã de sábado com uma jaqueta esporte", ela comentou com desdém, destacando como a classe e a cultura, não apenas a política, dividiam a Casa Branca Kennedy dos militares.

Lemnitzer, um ideólogo de extrema direita cujo endosso da doutrinação paranóica das tropas do Exército pelo general Edwin Walker havia levantado as suspeitas do Comitê de Relações Exteriores do senador William Fulbright, foi igualmente indiferente à turma de Kennedy. Ele pensava que sua administração "estava prejudicada não apenas pela inexperiência, mas também pela arrogância decorrente do fracasso em reconhecer [suas] próprias limitações ... O problema era simplesmente que os civis não aceitavam julgamentos militares".

Em 16 de março, três dias após seu encontro com McNamara, Lemnitzer foi convocado pelo presidente Kennedy ao Salão Oval para uma discussão da estratégia de Cuba, que também contou com a presença de McCone, Bundy, Lansdale e Taylor. A certa altura, o irreprimível Lansdale começou a expor, como de costume, as condições de melhoria para a revolta popular dentro de Cuba, acrescentando que uma vez que a gloriosa revolução anti-Castro começou, "devemos estar prontos para intervir com as forças dos EUA, se necessário." Isso provocou uma reação imediata de Kennedy, sempre alerta depois da Baía dos Porcos sobre ser empurrado para uma resposta militar em Cuba. O grupo não estava propondo que ele autorizasse a intervenção militar dos EUA, certo? "Não", Taylor e os outros imediatamente correram para assegurá-lo.

Mas Lemnitzer não conseguiu se conter. Ele pulou naquele momento para comandar a Operação Northwoods no mastro da bandeira. O general poupou o presidente dos brainstorms mais terríveis do plano, como explodir pessoas nas ruas de Miami e da capital do país e culpar Fidel. Mas ele informou a Kennedy que os chefes conjuntos "tinham planos para criar pretextos plausíveis para usar a força [contra Cuba], com os pretextos de ataques a aeronaves americanas ou uma ação cubana na América Latina pela qual retaliaríamos".

Kennedy não achou graça. Ele fixou Lemnitzer com um olhar severo e "disse sem rodeios que não estávamos discutindo o uso da força militar dos EUA", de acordo com as notas de Lansdale na reunião. O presidente acrescentou friamente que Lemnitzer poderia descobrir que não tinha divisões suficientes para lutar em Cuba, se os soviéticos reagissem à sua jogada caribenha indo à guerra em Berlim ou em outro lugar.

Apesar da reação fria do presidente, o presidente conjunto do Chiefs persistiu em sua campanha de guerra. Cerca de um mês depois da reunião na Casa Branca, Lemnitzer reuniu seus colegas chefes de serviço no "tanque", como era chamada a sala de conferências JCS. Sob sua direção, eles redigiram um severo memorando para McNamara insistindo "que o problema cubano seja resolvido em um futuro próximo". Isso nunca seria conseguido esperando pelo levante popular de conto de fadas de Ed Lansdale, o memorando deixava claro. Só havia uma maneira de fazer o trabalho: "O Estado-Maior Conjunto recomenda que uma política nacional de intervenção militar precoce em Cuba seja adotada pelos Estados Unidos".

Lemnitzer estava esgotando a paciência de Kennedy e McNamara. Depois de uma reunião do Conselho de Segurança Nacional em junho, o presidente chamou o general de lado e disse que queria enviá-lo à Europa para se tornar o novo comandante supremo aliado da OTAN. Kennedy substituiria Lemnitzer como o principal militar do país pelo mais amável Max Taylor. Ele teria um fomentador de guerra a menos para importuná-lo sobre Cuba.

Poderíamos promover atentados contra a vida de refugiados cubanos nos Estados Unidos, chegando ao ponto de ferir em casos a serem amplamente divulgados. A explosão de algumas bombas de plástico em locais cuidadosamente escolhidos, a prisão de agentes cubanos e a liberação de documentos preparados comprovando o envolvimento cubano também ajudariam a projetar a ideia de um governo irresponsável.


Operação Northwoods e o complô para culpar Castro pelo assassinato de JFK

Preste muita atenção aos comentários de Jim Garrison e # 8217s começando às 4:14 no vídeo. Na época do julgamento de Jim Garrison, ele fez menção a um plano para assassinar Fidel Castro, que quando o presidente Kennedy se recusou a executar, ele próprio foi morto.

Para citar a entrada da Wikipedia para a Operação Northwoods:


& # 8220Operation Northwoods foi uma série de propostas de bandeira falsa que se originaram no governo dos Estados Unidos em 1962, mas foram rejeitadas pela administração Kennedy. [2] As propostas exigiam que a Agência Central de Inteligência (CIA), ou outros agentes, cometessem atos percebidos de terrorismo em cidades dos EUA e em outros lugares. Esses atos de terrorismo deviam ser atribuídos a Cuba, a fim de criar apoio público para uma guerra contra aquela nação, que recentemente se tornou comunista sob Fidel Castro. [3]

& # 8220Uma parte da Operação Northwoods foi & # 8220 desenvolver uma campanha de terrorismo comunista cubano na área de Miami, em outras cidades da Flórida e até mesmo em Washington & # 8221. As propostas da Operação Northwoods incluíam sequestros e bombardeios seguidos pela introdução de evidências falsas que implicariam o governo cubano. Declarou: O resultado desejado da execução deste plano seria colocar os Estados Unidos na posição aparente de sofrer queixas defensáveis ​​de um governo precipitado e irresponsável de Cuba e desenvolver uma imagem internacional de uma ameaça cubana à paz no Ocidente Hemisfério. Várias outras propostas foram incluídas na Operação Northwoods, incluindo ações reais ou simuladas contra vários alvos militares e civis dos EUA. O plano foi elaborado pelo Estado-Maior Conjunto, assinado pelo Presidente Lyman Lemnitzer e enviado ao Secretário de Defesa. Embora parte da iniciativa anticomunista do Projeto Cubano do governo dos EUA & # 8217s, a Operação Northwoods nunca foi oficialmente aceita, pois foi autorizada pelo Estado-Maior Conjunto, mas foi rejeitada pelo presidente John F. Kennedy. & # 8221

Se as propostas da Operação Northwoods incluíam sequestros e bombardeios seguidos pela introdução de evidências falsas que implicariam o governo cubano, por que não o assassinato do presidente Kennedy? Isso não provocaria os americanos em uma guerra total contra Cuba? O que se sabe é que Lee Harvey Oswald era funcionário do FBI na época de sua morte e que estava alertando o FBI de que era um plano militante de direita para matar o presidente.

Clipe de áudio: a polícia de Miami gravou um informante do FBI que discutiu o assassinato com um militante ultradireita Klansman Joseph Milteer, 9 de novembro de 1963.

Em 24 de novembro de 1963, dois dias após o assassinato, Milteer relatou que não teriam que se preocupar com Lee Harvey Oswald sendo pego porque ele & # 8220 não & # 8217t sabe de nada & # 8221 e que a & # 8220 asa direita & # 8221 está no Claro.

& # 8220O presidente Kennedy foi assassinado por homens que buscavam uma mudança radical em nossa política externa, particularmente no que se refere a Cuba. Você se lembra de que, sob o presidente Kennedy, a Guerra Fria começou a derreter e surgiram novos sinais de um esforço da parte da União Soviética e de nós mesmos para nos entendermos.

& # 8220No mapa, esta [Cuba] parece ser apenas uma grande ilha na costa da Flórida. Mas, para muitos homens, significava muito mais do que isso. Em 1963, existia uma grande variedade de interesses, que não apenas desejavam uma invasão da Cuba de Castro apoiada pelos americanos, mas também consideravam que era inevitável.

& # 8220Na mente de muitos homens, esta ilha representou um tremendo marco emocional, porque eles haviam guiado seus rumos em direção a ela por muito tempo e com tanta intensidade.

& # 8220No outono de 1962 ocorreu a crise dos mísseis cubanos. Seguiu-se uma nova atitude pronunciada em relação a Cuba por parte dos Estados Unidos. Cuba, depois disso, deixou de ser considerada inimiga e deixou de ser considerada um jogo justo para aqueles homens que por uma razão ou outra focalizaram suas atenções nesta ilha. Os novos sinais de entendimento entre a Rússia e os Estados Unidos continuaram a se desenvolver.

& # 8220Em junho de 1963, o presidente Kennedy, dirigindo-se a estudantes da American University em Washington, disse-lhes que respiramos o mesmo ar que os russos. Ele disse que devemos tentar viver juntos em paz nesta Terra. Bem, neste ponto alguns indivíduos transferiram sua atenção hostil de Fidel Castro para John F. Kennedy. Eles planejaram o assassinato do presidente & # 8217s, e planejaram bem. & # 8221

Por que não derrubar Kennedy simplesmente por meios secretos que não incluíam assassinato? O objetivo era incitar os americanos à guerra contra Cuba. A única maneira de conseguir isso é se você tiver um conspirador que controlará as forças armadas, o FBI, a CIA e outras agências federais e meios de comunicação depois que o assassinato for concluído. Só havia uma pessoa que poderia fazer isso, e essa pessoa era o vice-presidente Lyndon Baines Johnson. Johnson, na época do assassinato de Kennedy & # 8217s, não deveria estar na lista em & # 821764 e também foi implicado no assassinato de um agente agrícola federal no Texas, Henry Marshall. Seus laços com a máfia também se tornaram dolorosamente aparentes no momento em que Robert F. Kennedy começou a reprimi-los. Também é interessante notar que o codinome do Serviço Secreto de LBJ & # 8217s era & # 8220Voluntário & # 8221 no momento do assassinato.

Então, por que Johnson não invadiu Cuba depois de haver tamanha preponderância de & # 8220evidências & # 8221 implicando Castro? Um bom motivo: a KGB sabia que Johnson era o responsável e poderia prová-lo. Além disso, os americanos e o resto do mundo ficaram sóbrios pela gravidade da crise dos mísseis de Cuba, que de fato nos levou à beira de uma guerra nuclear. Um contato muito próximo com o submarino soviético B-59 demonstra o quão perto fomos. Em 29 de outubro de 1962, onze destróieres da Marinha dos Estados Unidos e o porta-aviões USS Randolf perseguiam o submarino perto das águas cubanas, mas sem saber que os Estados Unidos estavam lançando cargas de profundidade práticas para forçar o submarino a vir à superfície para ser identificado, o A tripulação soviética presumiu que estavam sendo atacados. Na época, a tripulação soviética, tendo se esforçado muito para evitar perseguidores para monitorar qualquer tráfego de rádio civil dos americanos, não tinha ideia se uma guerra havia estourado. Também não houve contato de Moscou por dias. O capitão do navio queria lançar um torpedo nuclear, mas tal lançamento exigia a decisão unânime de três oficiais. Arkipov era um deles e argumentou contra a ideia até que finalmente prevaleceu sobre os dois oficiais a favor de uma greve. A maioria dos americanos não tinha ideia de que isso tinha acontecido, é claro, mas o incidente provou a mentalidade estúpida dos falcões de guerra que mais tarde tentariam invadir Cuba novamente, depois que Kennedy descongelou as relações com Cuba e a União Soviética. O memorando da Operação Northwoods abaixo para o Secretário de Defesa, Robert MacNamara, foi escrito quase um ano após a desastrosa invasão da Baía dos Porcos.

Um membro da Comissão Warren acreditava que Johnson & # 8220 poderia ser encontrado em algum lugar & # 8230 & # 8221

Hale Boggs, membro da Comissão Warren, passou a acreditar que Johnson teve um papel no assassinato de JFK. Boggs disse, em relação à teoria do & # 8220 single bullet (ou seja, Magic Bullet) que ele & # 8220 tinha fortes dúvidas sobre isso. & # 8221 A implicação, claro, é que Oswald não poderia ter agido sozinho.

Audio LBJ e Procurador-Geral Ramsey Clarke: Membro da Comissão Warren acreditava que Johnson & # 8220 poderia ser encontrado em algum lugar & # 8230 & # 8221

Johnson vinha acompanhando o caso Garrison desde o início. Acima está uma conversa que ele teve com o procurador-geral Ramsey Clark sobre o julgamento, a mídia & # 8217s & # 8220 olho feroz & # 8221 e a crença de Hale Boggs & # 8217 de que não apenas foi o assassinato uma conspiração, mas que & # 8220Johnson poderia ser encontrado em em algum lugar & # 8230 & # 8221

Nesse ponto, Johnson perguntou & # 8220Is uh, para quem Hale disse isso? & # 8230Hale disse ao promotor distrital de lá que eu poderia ser encontrado em algum lugar? & # 8221

Ramsey lhe deu um nome, mas é muito difícil discernir devido à baixa qualidade da fita. Como foi o caso com a vigilância constante de Jim Garrison e qualquer figura pública que questionou a teoria do assassino solitário ou a integridade da Teoria da Bala Mágica, ele acrescentou que o & # 8220FBI tinha muitos olhos e ouvidos com um sujeito como Hale Boggs. & # 8221 Que o FBI estaria investigando um membro da Comissão Warren encarregado de descobrir a verdade sobre o assassinato era revelador por si só.

Na verdade, o assassinato de Kennedy não deveria ser chamado de conspiração, porque foi muito mais do que isso. Foi um golpe de estado, ou seja, uma derrubada, ou seja, executado por um pequeno grupo do estado existente, os militares, que depôs o governo Kennedy para substituí-lo pelo governo Johnson. Como Kennedy ainda teria apoiadores leais na grande maioria das forças armadas e da comunidade de inteligência após sua morte, era fundamental que o novo presidente fosse aliado dos conspiradores para remover, interromper ou enganar os investigadores federais e estaduais. Johnson agora controlaria a CIA, o FBI, as forças armadas restantes, etc. Ele também teria uma quantidade incrível de controle sobre a mídia impressa e de radiodifusão, e não teria sido a primeira vez. Ele tem sido controlado de uma forma ou de outra desde a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se você quiser nomes, perderá a floresta pelas árvores. O golpe nunca poderia ter ocorrido sem a aprovação e participação de Johnson & # 8217s.

Então, onde está a evidência apontando para Johnson? O que motivaria Johnson a participar da trama? Houve muitos bons motivos. Ele tinha laços com a máfia numa época em que o procurador-geral Robert F. Kennedy os estava reprimindo. Ele foi implicado no assassinato do agente agrícola do Texas Henry Marshall. Houve o caso Billy Sol Estes. Ele também seria retirado da chapa em 1964, o que efetivamente encerraria suas ambições presidenciais e o deixaria vulnerável a processos judiciais.


Operação Northwoods: uma proposta de operação com bandeira falsa para levar aviões contra edifícios dos EUA e culpar Castro

Em 13 de março de 1962, o Estado-Maior Conjunto propôs ao presidente John F. Kennedy que os Estados Unidos atacassem a si mesmos e culpassem Cuba. Isso é conhecido como evento & ldquofalse flag & rdquo.

Esta proposta veio a pedido do CIA & rsquos Edward Lansdale, que era o responsável pelo projeto anti-Castro.

Kennedy considerou isso uma loucura, que certamente levaria à guerra. Isso o colocou em uma rota de colisão fatal com as pessoas mais poderosas do país.

Essa proposta pouco conhecida, de codinome Operação Northwoods, é altamente relevante hoje. Ele fornece um pano de fundo crucial para a mentalidade assassina daqueles a quem Castro & mdash e Kennedy & mdash irritaram. Além disso, seria tolo supor que a natureza básica das instituições mudou. A tentação de arquitetar os chamados eventos de bandeira falsa pode simplesmente ser grande demais para resistir.

Northwoods era uma anomalia? Certamente não. Criar provocações para justificar a ação & mdash fazendo parecer que você está apenas reagindo & mdash tem sido uma manobra de muitos governos, ao longo do tempo e em todo o mundo.

Os Estados Unidos dificilmente ficaram imunes à tentação de moldar eventos, opiniões e trajetórias históricas: uma explosão no encouraçado americano The Maine, no porto de Havana, pode ter sido projetado para construir o apoio público para a aquisição americana de Cuba, o Incidente do Golfo de Tonkin , um ataque atribuído aos norte-vietnamitas para justificar a ampliação da Operação Gladio de Conflito do Vietnã, na qual ataques terroristas na Europa na década de 1970 foram atribuídos a esquerdistas, mas planejados por redes de direita apoiadas pela inteligência americana. E WhoWhatWhy cobriu o recente uso de atrocidades falsificadas para justificar a derrubada de Muammar Qaddafi e a apropriação estratégica daquele valioso imóvel norte-africano.

Portanto, não é surpresa que muitos americanos não confiem em seu governo quando este lhes garante que foi pego de surpresa pelos ataques de 11 de setembro. Como o passado é um prólogo, faríamos bem em aprender as particularidades de Northwoods.

Peter Dale Scott & mdash professor de inglês em Berkeley, ex-diplomata canadense, poeta, autor de vários livros aclamados pela crítica sobre os principais eventos da América & rsquos passado recente & mdash tem uma visão incomum desses eventos. Aqui está um pequeno trecho de seu livro, & lsquoAmerican War Machine: Deep Politics, a CIA Global Drug Connection e a estrada para o Afeganistão& lsquo (Capítulo 9: & ldquo 9/11 e a tradição americana de eventos profundos projetados. & rdquo):

Operação Northwoods: Planejando Provocações e Engodos contra Cuba

Sabemos que o Pentágono foi capaz de planejar atrocidades como pretextos para a guerra a partir da série de documentos conhecidos coletivamente como Projeto Northwoods.

Northwoods foi uma resposta do JCS [Joint Chiefs of Staff] a um pedido de Edward Lansdale, que em 1962 era chefe de operações do Projeto Cuba anti-Castro, também conhecido como Operação Mongoose.

Lansdale havia pedido & ldquofor uma descrição breve, mas precisa dos pretextos que forneceriam a justificativa para a intervenção militar dos EUA em Cuba. & Rdquo (1) O documento JCS, assinado pelo chefe da JCS Lyman Lemnitzer, acompanhava uma lista de possibilidades de bandeira falsa, como as seguintes:

Poderíamos desenvolver uma campanha de terrorismo comunista cubano na área de Miami, em outras cidades da Flórida e até mesmo em Washington. A campanha de terror pode ser direcionada a refugiados que buscam refúgio nos Estados Unidos. Poderíamos afundar um barco cheio de cubanos a caminho da Flórida (reais ou simulados). Poderíamos fomentar atentados contra a vida de refugiados cubanos nos Estados Unidos, chegando ao ponto de ferir em casos a serem amplamente divulgados. A explosão de algumas bombas de plástico em locais cuidadosamente escolhidos, a prisão de agentes cubanos e a liberação de documentos preparados comprovando o envolvimento cubano também ajudariam a projetar a ideia de um governo irresponsável.

Este foi apenas um dos nove parágrafos de um anexo que propunha um menu de (em suas palavras) possíveis & ldquoprovocação & rdquo e & ldquodecepção & rdquo contra Cuba.

[Ed: Para ler mais sobre esses eventos de engenharia propostos, vá aqui.]

O fato de Lemnitzer encaminhar um documento tão provocativo não é surpreendente. Apenas alguns meses antes, em julho de 1961, ele se juntou ao diretor da CIA Allen Dulles no apoio a um plano de um ataque nuclear de surpresa à União Soviética & ldquoin no final de 1963, precedido por um período de tensões elevadas & rdquo (2)

O General da Força Aérea Leon Johnson disse mais tarde ao Conselho de Segurança Nacional que o JCS estimou que um ataque preventivo resultaria em "pelo menos 140 milhões de mortes na URSS".

Um ano depois, em maio de 1963, outro documento da JCS continuou a escrever sobre "a engenharia de uma provocação como pretexto para a invasão" e argumentou que "a engenharia de uma série de provocações para justificar a intervenção militar é viável e poderia ser realizada com os recursos disponíveis." 4)

Este documento foi preparado por J-5, a Diretoria de Planos e Políticas da JCS, & ldquoin em resposta a uma solicitação [de 25 de março de 1963] do Presidente da JCS para fornecer comentários e recomendações sobre os requisitos e a conveniência de fomentar uma revolta em Cuba, levando em consideração a vantagem de projetar um incidente como causa alternativa para a invasão. & rdquo (5) Este presidente foi a escolha de Kennedy & rsquos para suceder Lemnitzer, Maxwell Taylor.

(Taylor é geralmente lembrado como o defensor de uma resposta flexível em vez de & ldquomassive retaliation & rdquo para lidar com crises internacionais. Mas ele também é o general que, desde 1961, se encontrou com outros falcões & ldquoto fazer Kennedy & hellip usar força militar em ambos Laos e Vietnã do Sul. & Rdquo (6) Significativamente, Taylor, como presidente do JCS em 1963, estava simultaneamente promovendo planos de J-5 para ataques escalados, ou Operações 34A, contra o Vietnã do Norte.)

Todo esse planejamento cubano foi em apoio ao JCS OPLANS 312 (Ataque Aéreo a Cuba) e 316 (Invasão a Cuba). Estes não foram exercícios teóricos, mas desenvolveram ativamente planos operacionais que o JCS estava ansioso para executar. (7)

(Em geral, não se percebe que o bloqueio a Cuba, agora aplicado há quase meio século, começou como a primeira etapa do planejamento do OPLAN 316.) (8)

Em apoio a esses planos, o J-5 serviu como uma oficina para a fabricação de pretextos, ou o que podemos chamar de eventos de profunda decepção. Como James G. Hershberg escreveu em 1990,

Uma revisão do planejamento do Pentágono deixa claro que, para um pequeno círculo de altos funcionários civis e militares, a ideia de que os Estados Unidos poderiam provocar deliberadamente acontecimentos em Cuba que poderiam servir de pretexto para a intervenção norte-americana representava um curso de ação possível, frequentemente invocado , ao invés de uma difamação impensável que emergiu das fantasias paranóicas de Havana e Moscou. (9)

Pelo menos um dos enganos de bandeira falsa previstos no documento Northwoods & mdash & ldquoCuban & rsquo carregamentos de armas que seriam encontrados ou interceptados na praia & rdquo de outro país & mdash pode ter sido implementado.

A Venezuela anunciou em novembro de 1963 que havia descoberto em uma praia venezuelana um esconderijo de armas cubanas, consistindo de rifles, metralhadoras e munições.

Isso foi logo depois que John F. Kennedy pediu ao Diretor da CIA John McCone evidências da intervenção de Castro & rsquos na Venezuela & ldquot que poderia ser apresentado em um fórum público, como a OEA [Organização dos Estados Americanos]. & Rdquo [Especialmente depois do acordo com Khrushchev para não invadir Cuba, Kennedy estava obcecado em impedir uma disseminação mais ampla do castrismo na América Latina. Seu pedido de evidências, no entanto, não deve ser interpretado como um convite para fabricá-las.]

Oficiais da CIA trouxeram um dos rifles armazenados para os Kennedys, e Richard Helms relata que o presidente respondeu, & ldquoÓtimo trabalho. & Rdquo (10) [Ed: Para saber mais sobre este episódio, vá aqui. ]

Referências

  1. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, 13 de março de 1962 (Northwoods Document), 1, NARA # 202-10002-10404, 128, reproduzido em Michael C. Ruppert, Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire no fim da era do petróleo (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2004), 595.
  2. Notes on National Security Meeting, 20 de julho de 1961, in James K. Galbraith e Heather A. Purcell, & ldquoDid the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963? & Rdquo American Prospect, outono de 1994, 88 cf. James W. Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008), 235.
  3. Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable, 239 & ndash40.
  4. Joint Chiefs of Staff, & ldquoCourses of Action Related to Cuba (Case II), & rdquo Report of J-5 to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1 de maio de 1963, NARA # 202 -10002-10018, 21, http: // www .maryferrell.org / mffweb / archive / viewer / showDoc.do? docId = 167 & amprelPageId = 21.
  5. Joint Chiefs of Staff, & ldquoCursos de ação relacionados a Cuba (Caso II), & rdquo Relatório do J-5 ao Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1 de maio de 1963, NARA # 202-10002-10018, 4.
  6. Gareth Porter, Perigos do domínio: desequilíbrio de poder e o caminho para a guerra no Vietnã (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 265, cf. 148
  7. g., Memorando do Estado-Maior Conjunto para o Presidente Kennedy, 16 de novembro de 1962, JCSM-910-62, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/msc_cuba186.asp: & ldquoOs Chefes do Estado-Maior Conjunto estão contentes informar que nossas Forças Armadas estão em ótima postura para executar CINCLANT OPLANS 312-62 (Ataque Aéreo a Cuba) (1) e 316-62 (Invasão de Cuba). (2) Não estamos apenas prontos para tomar qualquer ação que você ordene em Cuba, também estamos em excelentes condições em todo o mundo para reagir a qualquer resposta militar soviética a tal ação. & Rdquo
  8. Telegrama do Quartel-General do Comandante-em-Chefe, Atlântico, para o Quartel-General do Comandante-em-Chefe, Frota do Atlântico, 21 de setembro de 1962, Relações Exteriores dos Estados Unidos, 1961 & ndash1963 [doravante denominado FRUS], vol. 10, 1082 e ndash83.
  9. Hershberg, & ldquoBefore & lsquoThe Missiles of October & rsquo & rdquo 242.
  10. Stephen G. Rabe, A Área Mais Perigosa do Mundo: John F. Kennedy Confronts a Revolução Comunista na América Latina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), 107.


Análise da crise dos mísseis cubanos

De acordo com diferentes recursos, a crise dos mísseis de Cuba consistiu em duas razões diferentes. Pela primeira razão, o principal motivo da crise dos mísseis em Cuba foi o governo dos Estados Unidos querer derrubar o regime de Fidel Castro. Em 1959, o Castro chegou ao poder para derrubar o regime de Batista que apoiava o governo dos Estados Unidos. Os EUA começaram a derrubar o regime de Castro com a ajuda de membros de Organizações de Estados Americanos. Mas os membros simplesmente desacreditaram o regime de Castro. & Hellip


Operação Northwoods - História

FALSOS ATAQUES TERRORISTAS PLANEJADOS DOS EUA A CIDADÃOS

PARA CRIAR APOIO PARA A GUERRA CUBANA

De BODY OF SECRETS, James Bamford, Doubleday, 2001, p.82 e seguintes: digitalizado e editado por NY Transfer News.

. Na opinião de Lemnitzer, o país estaria muito melhor se os generais pudessem assumir. [A lenda do assassinato de JFK diz que algum general presidiu a autópsia de JFK. --Mk]

Para os oficiais militares que estavam sentados em cima do muro, a invasão malfeita da Baía dos Porcos pelo governo Kennedy foi a gota d'água. "O fiasco da Baía dos Porcos quebrou o dique", disse um relatório da época. "O presidente Kennedy foi ridicularizado pelos superpatriotas como um chefe 'sem vitória'.

A extrema direita se tornou uma fonte de propostas nascidas da frustração e apresentadas em nome do anticomunismo. . . Os comandantes em serviço ativo foram anfitriões de seminários anticomunistas em suas bases e compareceram ou discursaram em reuniões de direita em outros lugares. "

Embora ninguém no Congresso pudesse saber na época, Lemnitzer e o Joint Chiefs escaparam silenciosamente.

De acordo com documentos secretos e ocultos há muito tempo (o link abre em formato pdf) obtidos para o Corpo de Segredos, a Junta de Chefes de Estado-Maior elaborou e aprovou planos para o que pode ser o plano mais corrupto já criado pelo governo dos EUA. Em nome do anticomunismo, propuseram lançar uma guerra secreta e sangrenta de terrorismo contra seu próprio país, a fim de enganar o público americano para que apoiasse uma guerra mal concebida que pretendiam lançar contra Cuba.

Código denominado Operação Northwoods, o plano, que tinha a aprovação por escrito do presidente e de todos os membros do Estado-Maior Conjunto, exigia que pessoas inocentes fossem baleadas nas ruas americanas para que barcos transportando refugiados que fugiam de Cuba fossem afundados em alto mar para uma onda de terrorismo violento a ser lançada em Washington, DC, Miami e em outros lugares.

As pessoas seriam indiciadas por bombardeios sem cometerem aviões que seriam sequestrados. Usando evidências falsas, tudo isso seria atribuído a Fidel, dando assim a Lemnitzer e sua cabala a desculpa, bem como o apoio público e internacional, de que precisavam para lançar sua guerra.

A ideia pode realmente ter se originado com o presidente Eisenhower nos últimos dias de seu governo. Com a Guerra Fria mais quente do que nunca e o recente escândalo do U-2 ainda fresco na memória do público, o velho general queria sair com uma vitória. Ele queria desesperadamente invadir Cuba nas semanas que antecederam a posse de Kennedy. Em 3 de janeiro, ele disse a Lemnitzer e outros assessores em sua Sala do Gabinete que moveria contra Fidel antes da posse se apenas os cubanos lhe dessem uma desculpa realmente boa.

Então, com o passar do tempo, Eisenhower apresentou uma ideia. Se Castro não forneceu essa desculpa, talvez, disse ele, os Estados Unidos "pudessem pensar em fabricar algo que fosse geralmente aceitável". O que ele estava sugerindo era um pretexto para um bombardeio, um ataque, um ato de sabotagem realizado secretamente contra os Estados Unidos pelos Estados Unidos. Seu objetivo seria justificar o início de uma guerra. Foi uma sugestão perigosa de um presidente desesperado.

Embora essa guerra não tenha ocorrido, a ideia não foi perdida pelo general Lemnitzer. Mas ele e seus colegas ficaram frustrados com o fracasso de Kennedy em autorizar seu plano e furiosos porque Fidel não forneceu uma desculpa para invadir.

A gota d'água pode ter acontecido durante uma reunião na Casa Branca em 26 de fevereiro de 1962. Preocupado que os vários planos de ação secretos do general Lansdale sob a Operação Mongoose estivessem simplesmente se tornando mais ultrajantes e indo a lugar nenhum, Robert Kennedy disse a ele para abandonar todos os esforços anti-Castro. Em vez disso, Lansdale recebeu ordens de se concentrar nos três meses seguintes estritamente na coleta de informações sobre Cuba. Foi uma derrota humilhante para Lansdale, um homem mais acostumado a elogiar do que a desprezar.

Enquanto os irmãos Kennedy pareciam de repente "amolecer" com Fidel, Lemnitzer percebeu que sua oportunidade de invadir Cuba estava se esvaindo rapidamente. The attempts to provoke the Cuban public to revolt seemed dead and Castro, unfortunately, appeared to have no inclination to launch any attacks against Americans or their property Lemnitzer and the other Chiefs knew there was only one option left that would ensure their war.

They would have to trick the American public and world opinion into hating Cuba so much that they would not only go along, but would insist that he and his generals launch their war against Castro. "World opinion, and the United Nations forum," said a secret JCS document, "should be favorably affected by developing the international image of the Cuban government as rash and irresponsible, and as an alarming and unpredictable threat to the peace of the Western Hemisphere."

Operation Northwoods called for a war in which many patriotic Americans and innocent Cubans would die senseless deaths, all to satisfy the egos of twisted generals back in Washington, safe in their taxpayer financed homes and limousines.

One idea seriously considered involved the launch of John Glenn, the first American to orbit the earth. On February 20,1962, Glenn was to lift off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on his historic journey. The flight was to carry the banner of America's virtues of truth, freedom, and democracy into orbit high over the planet. But Lemnitzer and his Chiefs had a different idea. They proposed to Lansdale that, should the rocket explode and kill Glenn, "the objective is to provide irrevocable proof that . . . the fault lies with the Communists et al Cuba [sic.]"

This would be accomplished, Lemnitzer continued, "by manufacturing various pieces of evidence which would prove electronic interference on the part of the Cubans." Thus, as NASA prepared to send the first American into space, the Joint Chiefs of Staff were preparing to use John Glenn's possible death as a pretext to launch a war.

Glenn lifted into history without mishap, leaving Lemnitzer and the Chiefs to begin devising new plots which they suggested be carried out "within the time frame of the next few months."

Among the actions recommended was "a series of well coordinated incidents to take place in and around" the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This included dressing "friendly" Cubans in Cuban military uniforms and then have them "start riots near the main gate of the base. Others would pretend to be saboteurs inside the base. Ammunition would be blown up, fires started, aircraft sabotaged, mortars fired at the base with damage to installations."

The suggested operations grew progressively more outrageous. Another called for an action similar to the infamous incident in February 1898 when an explosion aboard the battleship Maine in Havana harbor killed 266 U.S. sailors. Although the exact cause of the explosion remained undetermined, it sparked the Spanish-American War with Cuba.

[NOTE: According to Doug Reed in Controversy of Zion , when the Maine was raised, her plates were found to have been blown out by an inner explosion. JP ]

Incited by the deadly blast, more than one million men volunteered for duty. Lemnitzer and his generals came up with a similar plan. "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," they proposed "casualty lists in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."

There seemed no limit to their fanaticism: "We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington," they wrote. "The terror campaign could be pointed at Cuban refugees seeking haven in the United States.

We could sink a boatload of Cubans en route to Florida (real or simulated). . . . We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized."

Bombings were proposed, false arrests, hijackings:

*"Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government."

*"Advantage can be taken of the sensitivity of the Dominican [Republic] Air Force to intrusions within their national air space. 'Cuban' B-26 or C-46 type aircraft could make cane burning raids at night. Soviet Bloc incendiaries could be found. This could be coupled with 'Cuban' messages to the Communist underground in the Dominican Republic and 'Cuban' shipments of arms which would be found, or intercepted, on the beach. Use of MiG type aircraft by U.S. pilots could provide additional provocation."

*"Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft could appear to continue as harassing measures condoned by the Government of Cuba."

Among the most elaborate schemes was to "create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba. The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday or any grouping of persons with a common interest to support chartering a non-scheduled flight."

Lemnitzer and the Joint Chiefs worked out a complex deception:

An aircraft at Elgin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CJA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At a designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with the selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone [a remotely controlled unmanned aircraft]. Take off times of the drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida.

From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Elgin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will be transmitting on the international distress frequency a "May Day" message stating he is under attack by Cuban MiG aircraft.

The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft, which will be triggered by radio signal. This will allow ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization radio stations in the Western Hemisphere to tell the U.S. what has happened to the aircraft instead of the U.S. trying to "sell" the incident.

Finally, there was a plan to "make it appear that Communist Cuban MiGs have destroyed a USAF aircraft over international waters in an unprovoked attack." It was a particularly believable operation given the decade of shoot downs that had just taken place.

In the final sentence of his letter to Secretary McNamara recommending the operations, Lemnitzer made a grab for even more power asking that the Joint Chiefs be placed in charge of carrying out Operation Northwoods and the invasion. "It is recommended," he wrote, "that this responsibility for both oven and covert military operations be assigned to the Joint Chiefs of Staff."

At 2:30 on the afternoon of Tuesday, March 13, 1962, Lemnitzer went over last-minute details of Operation Northwoods with his covert action chief, Brigadier General William H. Craig, and signed the document. He then went to a "special meeting" in McNamara's office. An hour later he met with Kennedy's military representative, General Maxwell Taylor.

What happened during those meetings is unknown. But three days later, President Kennedy told Lemnitzer that there was virtually no possibility that the U.S. would ever use overt military force in Cuba.

Undeterred, Lemnitzer and the Chiefs persisted, virtually to the point of demanding that they be given authority to invade and take over Cuba. About a month after submitting Operation Northwoods, they met the "tank," as the JCS conference room was called, and agreed on the wording of a tough memorandum to McNamara. They wrote:

"The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the Cuban problem must be solved in the near future.

"Further, they see no prospect of early success in overthrowing the present communist regime either as a result of internal uprising or external political, economic or psychological pressures. Accordingly they believe that military intervention by the United States will be required to overthrow the present communist regime."

Lemnitzer was virtually rabid in his hatred of Communism in general and Castro in particular "The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the United States can undertake military intervention in Cuba without risk of general war" he continued. "They also believe that the intervention can be accomplished rapidly enough to minimize communist opportunities for solicitation of UN action." However what Lemnitzer was suggesting was not freeing the Cuban people, who were largely in support of Castro, but imprisoning them in a U.S. military-controlled police state. "Forces would assure rapid essential military control of Cuba," he wrote. "Continued police action would be required."

Concluding, Lemnitzer did not mince words: "[T]he Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend that a national policy of early military intervention in Cuba be adopted by the United States. They also recommend that such intervention be undertaken as soon as possible and preferably before the release of National Guard and Reserve forces presently on active duty."

By then McNamara had virtually no confidence in his military chief and was rejecting nearly every proposal the general sent to him. The rejections became so routine, said one of Lemnitzer's former staff officers, that the staffer told the general that the situation was putting the military in an "embarrassing rut." But Lemnitzer replied, "I am the senior military office--it's my job to state what I believe and it's his [McNamara's] job to approve or disapprove." "McNamara's arrogance was astonishing," said Lemnitzer's aide, who knew nothing of Operation Northwoods. "He gave General Lemnitzer very short shrift and treated him like a schoolboy. The general almost stood at attention when he came into the room. Everything was 'Yes, sir' and 'No, sir.'

Within months, Lemnitzer was denied a second term as JCS chairman and transferred to Europe as chief of NATO. Years later President Gerald Ford appointed Lemnitzer, a darling of the Republican right, to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. Lemnitzer's Cuba chief, Brigadier General Craig, was also transferred. Promoted to major general, he spent three years as chief of the Army Security Agency, NSA's military arm.

Because of the secrecy and illegality of Operation Northwoods, all details remained hidden for forty years. Lemnitzer may have thought that all copies of the relevant documents had been destroyed he was not one to leave compromising material lying around. Following the Bay of Pigs debacle, for example, he ordered Brigadier General David W Gray, Craig's predecessor as chief of the Cuba project within the JCS, to destroy all his notes concerning Joint Chiefs actions and discussions during that period. Gray's meticulous notes were the only detailed official records of what happened within the JCS during that time. According to Gray, Lemnitzer feared a congressional investigation and therefore wanted any incriminating evidence destroyed.

With the evidence destroyed, Lemnitzer felt free to lie to Congress. When asked, during secret hearings before a Senate committee, if he knew of any Pentagon plans for a direct invasion of Cuba he said he did not. Yet detailed JCS invasion plans had been drawn up even before Kennedy was inaugurated. And additional plans had been developed since.

The consummate planner and man of details also became evasive, suddenly encountering great difficulty in recalling key aspects of the operation, as if he had been out of the country during the period. It was a sorry spectacle. Senator Gore called for Lemnitzer to be fired. "We need a shake up of the Joint Chiefs of Staff" he said. "We direly need a new chairman, as well as new members." No one had any idea of Operation Northwoods.

Because so many documents were destroyed, it is difficult to determine how many senior officials were aware of Operation Northwoods. As has been described, the document was signed and fully approved by Lemnitzer and the rest of the Joint Chiefs and addressed to the Secretary of Defense for his signature. Whether it went beyond McNamara to the president and the attorney general is not known.

Even after Lemnitzer lost his job, the Joint Chiefs kept planning "pretext" operations at least into 1963. Among their proposals was a deliberately create a war between Cuba and any of a number of .n American neighbors.

This would give the United States military an excuse to come in on the side of Cuba's adversary and get rid of "A contrived 'Cuban' attack on an OAS [Organization of Americas] member could be set up," said one proposal, "and the attacked state could be urged to 'take measures of self-defense and request ice from the U.S. and OAS the U.S. could almost certainly obtain necessary two-thirds support among OAS members for collective action against Cuba."

Among the nations they suggested that the United States secretly were Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago. Both were members of the Commonwealth thus, by secretly attacking them and then blaming Cuba, the United States could lure England into the war Castro. The report noted, "Any of the contrived situations de above are inherently, extremely risky in our democratic system in which security can be maintained, after the fact, with very great difficulty.

If the decision should be made to set up a contrived situation it be one in which participation by U.S. personnel is limited only to the most highly trusted covert personnel. This suggests the infeasibility of the use of military units for any aspect of the contrived situation."

The report even suggested secretly paying someone in the Castro government to attack the United States: "The only area remaining for ration then would be to bribe one of Castro's subordinate commanders to initiate an attack on [the U.S. naval base at] Guantanamo." The act suggested--bribing a foreign nation to launch a violent attack American military installation--was treason.

In May 1963, Assistant Secretary of Defense Paul H. Nitze sent a the White House proposing "a possible scenario whereby an attack on a United States reconnaissance aircraft could be exploited toward the end of effecting the removal of the Castro regime."

In the event Cuba attacked a U-2, the plan proposed sending in additional American pilots, this time on dangerous, unnecessary low-level reconnaissance missions with the expectation that they would also be shot down, thus provoking a war "[T]he U.S. could undertake various measures designed to stimulate the Cubans to provoke a new incident," said the plan. Nitze, however, did not volunteer to be one of the pilots.

One idea involved sending fighters across the island on "harassing reconnaissance" and "show-off" missions "flaunting our freedom of action, hoping to stir the Cuban military to action." "Thus," said the plan, "depending above all on whether the Cubans were or could be made to be trigger-happy, the development of the initial downing of a reconnaissance plane could lead at best to the elimination of Castro, perhaps to the removal of Soviet troops and the installation of ground inspection in Cuba, or at the least to our demonstration of firmness on reconnaissance." About a month later, a low-level flight was made across Cuba, but unfortunately for the Pentagon, instead of bullets it produced only a protest.

Lemnitzer was a dangerous-perhaps even unbalanced-right-wing extremist in an extraordinarily sensitive position during a critical period. But Operation Northwoods also had the support of every single member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and even senior Pentagon official Paul Nitze argued in favor of provoking a phony war with Cuba.

The fact that the most senior members of all the services and the Pentagon could be so out of touch with reality and the meaning of democracy would be hidden for four decades.

In retrospect, the documents offer new insight into the thinking of the military's star-studded leadership. Although they never succeeded in launching America into a phony war with Cuba, they may have done so with Vietnam. More than 50,000 Americans and more than 2 million Vietnamese were eventually killed in that war.

It has long been suspected that the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident-the spark that led to America's long war in Vietnam-was largely staged or provoked by U.S. officials in order to build up congressional and public support for American involvement. Over the years, serious questions have been raised about the alleged attack by North Vietnamese patrol boats on two American destroyers in the Gulf But defenders of the Pentagon have always denied such charges, arguing that senior officials would never engage in such deceit.

Now, however, in light of the Operation Northwoods documents, it at deceiving the public and trumping up wars for Americans to fight and die in was standard, approved policy at the highest levels of the Pentagon. In fact, the Gulf of Tonkin seems right out of the Operation Northwoods playbook: "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba . . . casualty lists in U.S. newspapers cause a helpful wave of indignation."

One need only replace "Guantanamo Bay" with "Tonkin Gulf," and "Cuba" with "North Vietnam" and the Gulf of Tonkin incident may or may not have been stage-managed, but the senior Pentagon leadership at the time was clearly capable of such deceit.

"The public has a duty to watch its Government closely and keep it on the right track." --Lieutenant Gen. Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, Director, NSA, _NSA Newsletter_, June 1997


Operation Northwoods (Cold War Mystery!)

MYS151: In 1962, the Joint Chiefs of Staff sent Operation Northwoods to JFK as a daring, covert plan to stop a potential Soviet invasion. Jimmy Akin and Dom Bettinelli discuss this now declassified plan, the shocking series of secret actions it proposed, and Kennedy’s response.

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History: Operation Northwoods was some crazy shit

I'm not american, so perhaps you'd excuse my ignorance, but this seems like a conspiracy theory except it's actually real.

The US government planned domestic terror acts in order to blame it on Cuba and justify a war. In the end it was rejected by JFK but the fact that this was an actual plan is mindblowing. Perhaps it's no wonder there are so many conspiracy theories, when there are real actual conspiracies too.

Guzim

Operation Northwoods - Wikipedia

I'm not american, so perhaps you'd excuse my ignorance, but this seems like a conspiracy theory except it's actually real.

The US government planned domestic terror acts in order to blame it on Cuba and justify a war. In the end it was rejected by JFK but the fact that this was an actual plan is mindblowing. Perhaps it's no wonder there are so many conspiracy theories, when there are real actual conspiracies too.


Operation Northwoods - History

Friendly Fire
Book: U.S. Military Drafted Plans to Terrorize U.S. Cities to Provoke War With Cuba
By David Ruppe


N E W Y O R K, May 1 — In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders reportedly
drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create
public support for a war against Cuba.
Code named Operation Northwoods, the plans reportedly included the possible
assassination of Cuban �migr�s, sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas,
hijacking planes, blowing up a U.S. ship, and even orchestrating violent terrorism in U.S.
cities.
The plans were developed as ways to trick the American public and the international
community into supporting a war to oust Cuba's then new leader, communist Fidel Castro.
America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.S. military casualties, writing:
"We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," and, "casualty lists
in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."
Details of the plans are described in Body of Secrets (Doubleday), a new book by
investigative reporter James Bamford about the history of America's largest spy agency,
the National Security Agency. However, the plans were not connected to the agency, he
notes.
The plans had the written approval of all of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and were presented to
President Kennedy's defense secretary, Robert McNamara, in March 1962. But they
apparently were rejected by the civilian leadership and have gone undisclosed for nearly 40
anos.
"These were Joint Chiefs of Staff documents. The reason these were held secret for so
long is the Joint Chiefs never wanted to give these up because they were so embarrassing,"
Bamford told ABCNEWS.com.
"The whole point of a democracy is to have leaders responding to the public will, and here
this is the complete reverse, the military trying to trick the American people into a war that
they want but that nobody else wants."
Gunning for War
The documents show "the Joint Chiefs of Staff drew up and approved plans for what may
be the most corrupt plan ever created by the U.S. government," writes Bamford.
The Joint Chiefs even proposed using the potential death of astronaut John Glenn during
the first attempt to put an American into orbit as a false pretext for war with Cuba, the
documents show.
Should the rocket explode and kill Glenn, they wrote, "the objective is to provide
irrevocable proof … that the fault lies with the Communists et all Cuba [sic]."
The plans were motivated by an intense desire among senior military leaders to depose
Castro, who seized power in 1959 to become the first communist leader in the Western
Hemisphere — only 90 miles from U.S. shores.
The earlier CIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles had been a
disastrous failure, in which the military was not allowed to provide firepower.The military
leaders now wanted a shot at it.
"The whole thing was so bizarre," says Bamford, noting public and international support
would be needed for an invasion, but apparently neither the American public, nor the
Cuban public, wanted to see U.S. troops deployed to drive out Castro.
Reflecting this, the U.S. plan called for establishing prolonged military — not democratic
— control over the island nation after the invasion.
"That's what we're supposed to be freeing them from," Bamford says. "The only way we
would have succeeded is by doing exactly what the Russians were doing all over the
world, by imposing a government by tyranny, basically what we were accusing Castro
himself of doing."
'Over the Edge'
The Joint Chiefs at the time were headed by Eisenhower appointee Army Gen. Lyman L.
Lemnitzer, who, with the signed plans in hand made a pitch to McNamara on March 13,
1962, recommending Operation Northwoods be run by the military.
Whether the Joint Chiefs' plans were rejected by McNamara in the meeting is not clear.
But three days later, President Kennedy told Lemnitzer directly there was virtually no
possibility of ever using overt force to take Cuba, Bamford reports. Within months,
Lemnitzer would be denied another term as chairman and transferred to another job.
The secret plans came at a time when there was distrust in the military leadership about
their civilian leadership, with leaders in the Kennedy administration viewed as too liberal,
insufficiently experienced and soft on communism. At the same time, however, there real
were concerns in American society about their military overstepping its bounds.
There were reports U.S. military leaders had encouraged their subordinates to vote
conservative during the election.
And at least two popular books were published focusing on a right-wing military
leadership pushing the limits against government policy of the day. The Senate Foreign
Relations Committee published its own report on right-wing extremism in the military,
warning a "considerable danger" in the "education and propaganda activities of military
personnel" had been uncovered. The committee even called for an examination of any ties
between Lemnitzer and right-wing groups. But Congress didn't get wind of Northwoods,
says Bamford.
"Although no one in Congress could have known at the time," he writes, "Lemnitzer and
the Joint Chiefs had quietly slipped over the edge."
Even after Lemnitzer was gone, he writes, the Joint Chiefs continued to plan "pretext"
operations at least through 1963.
One idea was to create a war between Cuba and another Latin American country so that
the United States could intervene. Another was to pay someone in the Castro government
to attack U.S. forces at the Guantanamo naval base — an act, which Bamford notes,
would have amounted to treason. And another was to fly low level U-2 flights over Cuba,
with the intention of having one shot down as a pretext for a war.
"There really was a worry at the time about the military going off crazy and they did, but
they never succeeded, but it wasn't for lack of trying," he says.
After 40 Years
Ironically, the documents came to light, says Bamford, in part because of the 1992 Oliver
Stone film JFK, which examined the possibility of a conspiracy behind the assassination of
President Kennedy.
As public interest in the assassination swelled after JFK's release, Congress passed a law
designed to increase the public's access to government records related to the assassination.
The author says a friend on the board tipped him off to the documents.
Afraid of a congressional investigation, Lemnitzer had ordered all Joint Chiefs documents
related to the Bay of Pigs destroyed, says Bamford. But somehow, these remained.
"The scary thing is none of this stuff comes out until 40 years after," says Bamford

"WAR IS A RACKET." MAJOR GENERAL SMEDLEY BUTLER, USMC.

A highly revealing ABC news article < http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=92662> describes plans for government-sponsored terrorism right here in America:

"In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create public support for a war against Cuba."

The article goes on to reveal that the plans, code-named Operation Northwoods, were approved in writing by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and endorsed by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. Yes, it's a fact that our own military leaders proposed we secretly blow up an American ship and hijack US planes as a false pretext for war!

To access 181 pages of declassified U.S. military documents on the official website of the National Archives and Records Administration which reveal plans of the top U.S. generals to sponsor terrorism on U.S. soil, go here:

To read the 15 most revealing pages of these documents posted on the National Security Archive of George Washington University, see:

Note that these government documents were approved in writing by the Joint Chiefs of Staff - the top generals of each branch of the US armed forces - and submitted to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1962. The only reason these plans were not implemented is that they were rejected by the Kennedy administration. Had the administration approved, these secret manipulations would almost certainly have fooled the American public into supporting war. These plans for government- sponsored terrorism were classified top secret so that the American public would never know how it was being manipulated. They came to light only because of a Freedom of Information Act request in the late 1990s. Had the plans been used, they would have been given operational status, and thus would never have been released to the public in accordance with secrecy laws.

Below are key passages quoted directly from the Operation Northwoods documents, which you can verify at the above links. Page numbers are listed to assist in finding the quotes in the original documents. As you read, we invite you to then ask yourself, is it beyond comprehension that this same kind of thinking and planning could have led to 9/11? More information on what you can do is given below these quotes.

Excerpts from Operation Northwoods Documents

Page 1 of File (Memorandum)

MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE

Subject: Justification for US Military Intervention in Cuba

The Joint Chiefs of Staff have considered the attached Memorandum for the Chief of Operations, Cuba Project, which responds to a request of that office for brief but precise description of pretexts which could provide justification for US military intervention in Cuba. It is assumed that a single agency will be given the primary responsibility for developing military and para- military aspects of the basic plan. It is recommended that this responsibility for both overt and covert military operations be assigned the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Page 5 of File (page 2 of Joint Chiefs report)

World opinion, and the United Nations forum should be favorably affected by developing the international image of the Cuban government as rash and irresponsible, and as an alarming and unpredictable threat to the peace of the Western Hemisphere.

Page 8 of File (page 5 of Joint Chiefs report)

This plan . should be developed to focus all efforts on a specific ultimate objective which would provide adequate justification for US military intervention. Such a plan would enable a logical build-up of incidents to be combined with other seemingly unrelated events to camouflage the ultimate objective.

Page 10-11 of File (page 7-8 of Joint Chiefs report)

A series of well coordinated incidents will be planned to take place in and around Guantanamo to give genuine appearance of being done by hostile Cuban forces.

(1) Start rumors (many). Use clandestine radio.

(2) Land friendly Cubans in uniform "over-the-fence" to stage attack on base.

(3) Capture Cuban (friendly) saboteurs inside the base.

(4) Start riots near the base main gate (friendly Cubans).

(5) Blow up ammunition inside the base: start fires.

(6) Burn aircraft on air base (sabotage).

(7) Lob mortar shells from outside of base into base.

(8) Capture assault teams approaching from the sea or vicinity of Guantanamo City.

(9) Capture militia group which storms base.

(10) Sabotage ship in harbor large fires - naphthalene.

(11) Sink ship near harbor entrance. Conduct funerals for mock-victims.

We could blow up a US ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba. Casualty lists in US newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation.

We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.

Page 12 of File (page 9 of Joint Chiefs report)

Use of [Soviet] MIG type aircraft by US pilots could provide additional provocation. Attacks on surface shipping and destruction of US military drone aircraft by MIG type planes would be useful as complementary actions. Reasonable copies of the MIG could be produced from US resources in about three months.

Page 13 of File (page 10 of Joint Chiefs report)

Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft should appear to continue as harassing measures condoned by the government of Cuba.

It is possible to create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner enroute from the United States. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan to cross Cuba. The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday.

An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At the designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual aircraft would be converted to a drone.

The drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida. From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Eglin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will be transmitting on the international distress frequency a "MAY DAY" message stating he is under attack by Cuban MIG aircraft. The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft which will be triggered by radio signal.

Remember that government and military leaders think of world politics like a chess game. Sometimes you have to sacrifice your own pieces in order to win the game. Zbigniew Brzezinski, former U.S.

National Security Advisor and co-founder of the Trilateral Commission, titled his 1997 book The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. In this seminal book on American foreign policy, Brzezinksi states that because of popular resistance to U.S. military expansionism, his ambitious strategy for "American global primacy" can't be implemented "except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat." (The Grand Chessboard < http://www.WantToKnow.info/brzezinskigrandchessboard> , page 211).

Consider also that in September 2000, a think-tank named Project for the New American Century published a blueprint for maintaining global U.S. preeminence and shaping the international security order in line with U.S. interests. Written before the 2000 Presidential election, this revealing report was commissioned by future Vice President Cheney, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz, and Governor Jeb Bush. The report shows that even before 9/11, the Bush administration intended to take military control of Persian Gulf oil whether or not Saddam Hussein was in power. [Article on BBC website and original report both available here < http://www.wanttoknow.info/9-11cover-up10pg#pnac> ]

Considering the above information, is it beyond comprehension that tactics similar to Operation Northwoods might have been used in relation to the 9/11 attacks in order to create "a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat?"

Could 9/11 have been the pretext upon which to build a War on Terror in order to "maintain global US preeminence?"

Might the 9/11 attacks have been allowed to happen, or even facilitated and manipulated by elements of the U.S. government and military? For what a highly decorated U.S. general had to say on how politicians and corporations manipulate the public to support war, click here < http://www.wanttoknow.info/warcoverup> .

We invite you to explore a two-page summary of easily verifiable facts with links direct to major media sources which suggest a major 9/11 cover-up by clicking here < http://www.WantToKnow.info/9-

To access three riveting documentaries which explore the above vital facts and much more, click

For additional empowering information on these and other reliable resources on the 9/11 cover-up,

"My wife and I, transfixed in front of a TV as the horror of 9/11 unfolded, watched

as the topmost, undamaged floors of the WTC South Tower started to gradually lean (rotate)

in the direction of the damage due to impact. In an instant, the rotation stopped, and that

which was rotating began to fall, as if only under the influence of gravity! The fulcrum

was no longer there. I blurted out, 'My god, they wired the building'."

- Mike Hawryluk, Professor Emeritus of Physics and former Division Chairman,


Projeto Manhattan

One of the most well-known secret research programs is the Manhattan Project, which eventually produced the world's first atomic bombs. The project began in 1939, and was cloaked in secrecy as physicists investigated the potential power of atomic weapons. From 1942 to 1946, Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers led the Manhattan Project.

The first nuclear bomb was detonated at 5:30 a.m. on July 16, 1945, during the so-called Trinity test at the Alamogordo Air Base, 120 miles (193 km) south of Albuquerque, N.M. The explosion created a mushroom cloud that stretched 40,000 feet (12,200 m), and the bomb's explosive power was equivalent to more than 15,000 tons of TNT.

A month after the Trinity test, two atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in the waning stages of World War II. To date, the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain the only uses of nuclear weapons in war.


(6:30 a.m.) September 11, 2001: NORAD on Alert for Emergency Exercises

NORAD’s war room in Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado [Source: Val Gempis] Lieutenant Colonel Dawne Deskins and other day shift employees at NORAD’s Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) in Rome, NY, start their workday. NORAD is conducting a week-long, large-scale exercise called Vigilant Guardian. [Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002] Deskins is regional mission crew chief for the Vigilant Guardian exercise. [ABC News, 9/11/2002]
Exercise Includes Simulated Attack on the US - Vigilant Guardian is described as “an exercise that would pose an imaginary crisis to North American Air Defense outposts nationwide” as a “simulated air war” and as “an air defense exercise simulating an attack on the United States.” According to the 9/11 Commission, it “postulated a bomber attack from the former Soviet Union.” [Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002 Filson, 2003, pp. 55 and 122 9/11 Commission, 7/24/2004, pp. 458] Vigilant Guardian is described as being held annually, and is one of NORAD’s four major annual exercises. [Filson, 2003, pp. 41 Arkin, 2005, pp. 545 GlobalSecurity (.org), 4/27/2005] However, one report says it takes place semi-annually. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002] Accounts by participants vary on whether 9/11 is the second, third, or fourth day of the exercise. [Code One Magazine, 1/2002 Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002 Ottawa Citizen, 9/11/2002] Vigilant Guardian is a command post exercise (CPX), and in at least some previous years was conducted in conjunction with Stratcom’s Global Guardian exercise and a US Space Command exercise called Apollo Guardian. [US Congress, n.d. Arkin, 2005, pp. 545 GlobalSecurity (.org), 4/27/2005] All of NORAD is participating in Vigilant Guardian on 9/11. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002]
Exercise Includes Simulated Hijacking - Vanity Fair reports that the “day’s exercise” (presumably Vigilant Guardian) is “designed to run a range of scenarios, including a ‘traditional’ simulated hijack in which politically motivated perpetrators commandeer an aircraft, land on a Cuba-like island, and seek asylum.” [Vanity Fair, 8/1/2006] However, at NEADS, most of the dozen or so staff on the operations floor have no idea what the exercise is going to entail and are ready for anything. [Utica Observer-Dispatch, 8/5/2004]
NORAD Fully Staffed and Alert - NORAD is currently running a real-world operation named Operation Northern Vigilance (see September 9, 2001). It may also be conducting a field training exercise calling Amalgam Warrior on this morning (see 9:28 a.m. September 11, 2001). NORAD is thus fully staffed and alert, and senior officers are manning stations throughout the US. The entire chain of command will be in place and ready when the first hijacking is reported. An article later says, “In retrospect, the exercise would prove to be a serendipitous enabler of a rapid military response to terrorist attacks on September 11.” [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002 Bergen Record, 12/5/2003] Colonel Robert Marr, in charge of NEADS, will say: “We had the fighters with a little more gas on board. A few more weapons on board.” [ABC News, 9/11/2002] However, Deskins and other NORAD officials later are initially confused about whether the 9/11 attacks are real or part of the exercise (see (8:38 a.m.-8:43 a.m.) September 11, 2001).


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