Primeira prisão de Billy the Kid

Primeira prisão de Billy the Kid


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Em 23 de setembro de 1875, Billy the Kid é preso pela primeira vez depois de roubar um cesto de roupa suja. Mais tarde, ele fugiu da prisão e vagou pelo oeste americano, ganhando a reputação de fora-da-lei e assassino e uma ficha criminal que supostamente incluía 21 assassinatos.

Os detalhes exatos do nascimento de Billy the Kid são desconhecidos, além de seu nome, William Henry McCarty. Ele provavelmente nasceu entre 1859 e 1861, em Indiana ou Nova York. Quando criança, ele não teve nenhum relacionamento com seu pai e se mudou com sua família, morando em Indiana, Kansas, Colorado e Silver City, Novo México. Sua mãe morreu em 1874 e Billy the Kid - que teve vários nomes ao longo de sua vida, incluindo Kid Antrim e William Bonney - voltou-se para o crime logo depois.

ASSISTIR: O verdadeiro Billy the Kid no HISTORY Vault

McCarty fez uma temporada como ladrão de cavalos no Arizona antes de retornar ao Novo México, onde se juntou a uma gangue de pistoleiros e ladrões de gado envolvidos na notória Guerra do Condado de Lincoln entre fazendeiros rivais e facções de mercadores no Condado de Lincoln em 1878. Depois disso, Billy o Kid, que tinha uma constituição esguia, dentes da frente proeminentes e tortos e uma paixão por cantar, fugiu e continuou sua vida de fora-da-lei, roubando gado e cavalos, jogando e matando pessoas. Seus crimes lhe renderam uma recompensa pela cabeça e ele acabou sendo capturado e indiciado por matar um xerife durante a Guerra do Condado de Lincoln. Billy the Kid foi condenado à forca por seu crime; no entanto, pouco tempo depois, ele conseguiu outra fuga da prisão, assassinando dois deputados no processo. A liberdade de Billy the Kid foi breve, quando o xerife Pat Garrett alcançou o desesperado em Fort Sumner, Novo México, em 14 de julho de 1881, e atirou nele fatalmente.

Embora sua vida tenha sido curta, a lenda de Billy the Kid cresceu após sua morte. Hoje ele é um símbolo famoso do Velho Oeste, junto com homens como Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday e Wyatt Earp, e sua história foi mitificada e romantizada em vários filmes, livros, programas de TV e canções . Todos os anos, os turistas visitam a cidade de Fort Sumner, localizada a cerca de 160 milhas a sudeste de Albuquerque, para ver o Museu Billy the Kid e o túmulo.

LEIA MAIS: Como Billy the Kid morreu?


Os reguladores foram formados por numerosos proprietários de pequenos ranchos e cowboys na área de Lincoln, Novo México. Muitos dos que se tornaram mais conhecidos como "Reguladores" já tinham uma longa história uns com os outros. William Bonney, também conhecido como Billy the Kid ou Henry McCarty, se tornaria o mais conhecido, principalmente porque as notícias atribuíam seu nome a tudo o que os reguladores faziam. A guerra do condado de Lincoln o trouxe para a frente, mas vários dos outros reguladores foram na verdade a força motriz por trás dos eventos e tinham uma história de matança lado a lado antes da guerra.

Ab Saunders, Charlie Bowdre, Doc Scurlock, Frank Coe e George Coe já haviam matado ladrões juntos. Em 18 de julho de 1876, esse grupo invadiu a prisão de Lincoln, removendo o ladrão de cavalos Jesus Largo, e o enforcou. Ab Saunders e Frank Coe tinham rastreado o ladrão de gado Nicos Meras, atirando e matando-o naquele mesmo mês no Baca Canyon. Sua associação com McCarty começou quando, na primavera de 1876, Henry (na época conhecido como Henry Antrim ou William Bonney) mudou-se para Lincoln County e começou a trabalhar para Doc Scurlock e Charlie Bowdre em sua fábrica de queijos. Mais tarde, ele trabalhou, por um tempo, para o fazendeiro Henry Hooker, e depois para Ab Saunders e os Coes em seu rancho. Na época em que a Guerra do Condado de Lincoln começou, aqueles membros do núcleo principal, referidos como "revestidos de ferro", eram todos mais experientes e mais perto de serem "atiradores" reais do que McCarty.

A Guerra do Condado de Lincoln começou quando um destacamento de homens, representado pelo xerife William J. Brady, assassinou o jovem inglês John Henry Tunstall em 18 de fevereiro de 1878. O pelotão aparentemente perseguia Tunstall para anexar, ou seja, apreender por autoridade legal, algumas ações Tunstall e seus homens estavam dirigindo do rancho de Tunstall no rio Feliz para Lincoln, mas a verdadeira motivação do pelotão era clara - eliminar John Tunstall como uma ameaça econômica para os empresários James Dolan e LG Murphy, que tinha o xerife Brady em seu controle. [1]

Os fazendeiros de Tunstall e outros cidadãos locais formaram um grupo conhecido como Reguladores para vingar seu assassinato e combater o que eles viam como um sistema de justiça criminal territorial corrupto controlado por aliados de Murphy, Dolan e companhia. Os Reguladores obtiveram sua legalidade da autoridade do Juiz de Paz da cidade de Lincoln, John B. Wilson. [2] O juiz de paz Wilson emitiu mandados para a prisão dos assassinos de John Tunstall e nomeou o regulador Dick Brewer como policial especial para executar os mandados. Além disso, o regulador Robert Widenmann, que anteriormente garantiu uma nomeação como vice-marechal dos EUA, recebeu permissão para formar um destacamento civil e prender o acusado. [3] [4]

A guerra do condado de Lincoln e os reguladores lançariam Billy the Kid para a fama eterna. É provável que, na realidade, outros reguladores, por exemplo Doc Scurlock, estivessem mais perto de realmente serem "atiradores" do que Billy. É provável que em alguns casos, Billy the Kid foi creditado com assassinatos que na verdade foram cometidos por outros reguladores. No final dos Reguladores, quaisquer assassinatos cometidos por eles tinham seu nome anexado, fosse ele o atirador real ou não. Isso acabaria prejudicando suas tentativas de anistia.

Os reguladores passariam por três líderes diferentes, todos menos um sendo morto. Embora Billy the Kid alcançasse fama como membro dos Reguladores, ele nunca os liderou. Seu primeiro líder foi Richard "Dick" Brewer, morto mais tarde por Buckshot Roberts e substituído por Frank McNab, que foi morto por membros dos Seven Rivers Warriors. McNab foi substituído pelo líder final dos Reguladores, Doc Scurlock.

William Bonney, também conhecido como Billy the Kid, nunca fez qualquer esforço para se tornar conhecido, ou ser o principal assunto das reportagens sobre os eventos ocorridos durante a guerra de extensão. Frank Coe comentou anos depois: "Ele nunca pressionou seus conselhos ou opiniões, mas tinha uma presença de espírito maravilhosa." [5]

  • 18 de fevereiro de 1878, Tunstall foi morto pelos pistoleiros Murphy-Dolan William Morton, Frank Baker, Jesse Evans e Tom Hill enquanto ele e seus fazendeiros, Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Bob Widenmann e Fred Waite, foram conduzindo nove cavalos de seu rancho no Rio Feliz até Lincoln. No dia seguinte, Bonney e Brewer juram declarações e mandados são emitidos pelo Juiz de Paz John Wilson para o subgrupo. Enquanto tentavam cumprir os mandados, Waite, Bonney e Constable Martinez são detidos pelo xerife William J. Brady. Waite e Bonney perdem o funeral de Tunstall, Martinez seria dispensado. No dia 23, Bonney e Waite são libertados da prisão.
  • 1 de Março, "Dick" Brewer é nomeado policial da cidade pelo Juiz de Paz John Wilson, Billy é seu vice. Eles devem trazer os assassinos de Tunstall. Outros são delegados e se autodenominam "Os Reguladores".
  • 6 de março, Os reguladores prendem Bill Morton e Frank Baker. Três dias depois, Morton, Baker e o regulador William McCloskey são mortos em Agua Negra, acreditando-se que McCloskey traiu os reguladores.
  • 9 de março, O governador territorial Samuel B. Axtell decretou que John Wilson, o juiz de paz, havia sido ilegalmente nomeado pelos comissários do condado de Lincoln. Wilson havia delegado os reguladores e emitido os mandados para os assassinos de Tunstall. O decreto de Axtell significava que as ações dos Reguladores, antes consideradas legais, agora estavam além da lei. Axtell também foi capaz de revogar o status de Widenmann como deputado marechal dos EUA, tornando o xerife Brady e seus homens os únicos oficiais da lei do condado de Lincoln.
  • 1 de AbrilJim French, Frank MacNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Brown, Billy the Kid e, possivelmente, Bob Widenmann atiram no xerife e em seus delegados através de portais improvisados ​​da parede de adobe atrás deles. Bonney é ferido por Matthews enquanto tentava recuperar o rifle levado por Brady. O xerife Brady e o deputado Hindman são mortos.
  • 4 de abril, Há um tiroteio em Blazer's Mill com Buckshot Roberts. Buckshot e Brewer são mortos, Middleton é gravemente ferido, Bonney é atingido de raspão por uma bala, George Coe tem seu dedo no gatilho disparado.
  • 18 de abril, The Kid, Middleton, Waite e Brown são indiciados pelo assassinato do xerife Brady. Dolan, Evans, Matthews e outros são indiciados pelo assassinato de Tunstall.
  • 29 de abril, Frank McNab é morto por membros dos Seven Rivers Warriors. Ab Saunders está gravemente ferido e Frank Coe foi capturado.
  • 30 de abril, George Coe atira e fere o membro do Seven Rivers "Dutch Charlie" Kruling em Lincoln. Os membros do Seven Rivers, Tom Green, Charles Marshall, Jim Patterson e John Galvin são mortos no mesmo dia e, embora os reguladores sejam culpados, seu envolvimento nunca foi provado. Os membros de uma gangue de Seven Rivers naquela época estavam começando a se virar uns contra os outros.
  • 15 de maio, Os Reguladores se vingaram invadindo a área ao redor de Sete Rios, capturando e matando Manuel Segovia, o cowboy que matou Frank McNab.
  • 15 de julho, os Reguladores foram cercados em Lincoln na casa dos McSween. Diante deles estavam os cowboys Dolan / Murphy / Seven Rivers.
  • 19 de julho, a casa foi incendiada. À medida que as chamas se espalhavam e a noite caía, Susan McSween conseguiu passagem segura para fora da casa enquanto os homens continuavam a combater o incêndio. Por volta das 9 horas, aqueles que ficaram dentro foram colocados para arrombar a porta dos fundos da casa em chamas. Jim French saiu primeiro, seguido por Billy the Kid, Tom O'Folliard e Jose Chavez y Chavez. Os homens de Dolan viram os homens correndo e abriram fogo, matando Harvey Morris, o parceiro de Alexander McSween. Alguns soldados foram para o quintal para levar os que ficaram sob custódia quando um tiroteio começou. Alex McSween foi morto, assim como o cowboy do Seven Rivers, Bob Beckwith. Com a morte de McSween, a guerra acabou.

No final das contas, a Guerra do Condado de Lincoln fez pouco além de fomentar a desconfiança e a animosidade na área e transformar os Reguladores sobreviventes em fugitivos, principalmente Billy the Kid. Os primos Kid, Scurlock, Bowdre, Chavez y Chavez, Waite, Saunders, Brewer, Brown, McNab e os Coe receberam a maior notoriedade como "Reguladores". Gradualmente, seus companheiros atiradores se espalharam para seus vários destinos, e Billy the Kid ficou com Charlie Bowdre, Tom O'Folliard, Dirty Dave Rudabaugh e alguns outros amigos com quem ele roubou gado e cometeu outros pequenos crimes enquanto negociava uma anistia que nunca viria, e fugindo da captura.

  • Ab Saunders morreu em 1884, em San Francisco, Califórnia, durante uma cirurgia para corrigir problemas que ainda sofria devido ao ferimento recebido em 29 de abril de 1878.
  • Fred Waite voltou para o que hoje é o Oklahoma, onde, como membro da Nação Chickasaw, estabeleceu-se como fazendeiro e, por fim, entrou para a política.
  • Frank e George Coe mudaram-se por um tempo, voltando para Lincoln, onde se tornaram cidadãos altamente respeitados e fazendeiros bem-sucedidos.
  • Jose Chavez y Chavez eventualmente se tornou um policial, mas se envolveu em um assassinato de aluguel, pelo qual passou um período na prisão. Após sua libertação, ele viveu uma vida aparentemente tranquila até morrer em 1924.
  • A carreira pós-Novo México de Robert A. Widenmann o levou para a Grã-Bretanha, onde visitou a família de Tunstall, e para Haverstraw, N.Y., onde morreu em 13 de abril de 1930 aos 78 anos.
  • Doc Scurlock mudou-se para o Texas, onde se tornou um cidadão respeitado em Potter County, Texas e Eastland County, Texas, morrendo aos 79 anos.

A maioria dos mais de 40 reguladores eram relativamente desconhecidos e seu paradeiro após o fim da guerra se perdeu na história.


Enciclopédia das Grandes Planícies

Billy the Kid era um fora-da-lei cuja lenda obscureceu qualquer significado pessoal ou histórico que ele possa ter. Não foi documentado de forma satisfatória quando e onde ele nasceu, embora tenha sido estabelecido que seu nome real era Henry McCarty. Em 1880, em Fort Sumner, Novo México, McCarty (também conhecido por Billy Antrim, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim, Billy Bonney, William H. Bonney e Billy the Kid) disse a um recenseador federal que tinha vinte e cinco anos, que ambos pais haviam nascido no Missouri e ele também nascera lá. Não há razão para acreditar que ele estava mentindo. Pode-se documentar que em 1866 ele morava no condado de Marion, Indiana, com sua mãe, Catherine McCarty, e seu irmão mais velho, Joseph McCarty. Catherine McCarty sofria de tuberculose, e isso pode tê-la levado a se mudar mais para o oeste. Em 1873, a mãe de Billy casou-se com William H. Antrim em Santa Fé, Novo México. Pouco depois da morte de sua mãe em 1874, ele começou a vagar e passou dois anos como trabalhador braçal, vaqueiro e caminhoneiro no leste do Arizona.

Apenas quatro assassinatos podem ser documentados contra o Kid. O primeiro ocorreu em 1877 em Camp Grant, Arizona, quando Billy atirou e matou Frank "Windy" Cahill depois que uma discussão se tornou violenta. The Kid foi considerado culpado de tiroteio "criminoso e injustificável", mas escapou da custódia e voltou para o Novo México. As outras mortes de Kid resultaram de seu envolvimento na Guerra do Condado de Lincoln, uma rixa mortal envolvendo comerciantes locais e interesses pecuários. De um lado estava o advogado escocês Alexander Mc-Sween e John H. Tunstall, um inglês que possuía uma fazenda de gado no condado de Lincoln. Do outro estavam James Dolan e Lawrence Murphy, comerciantes da cidade de Lincoln. Em janeiro de 1878, o Kid estava trabalhando para Tunstall. Quando Tunstall foi assassinado pela facção Murphy-Dolan, Kid e outros aliados de Tunstall-McSween se declararam "Reguladores" e buscaram vingança.

No ano seguinte, uma guerra de retaliação sangrenta foi travada entre as duas facções. No início de março, os reguladores prenderam e mataram os associados de Dolan, Frank Baker e Billy Morton, supostamente enquanto os dois tentavam escapar. Nesse ponto, o governador territorial John Axtell declarou os Reguladores fora-da-lei depois que eles foram caçados. Em 1º de abril de 1878, quando o xerife William Brady e o deputado George Hindman, ambos aliados de Dolan, tentaram emboscar McSween, os reguladores revidaram e mataram os homens da lei. Três dias depois, os Reguladores lutaram contra "Buckshot" Roberts, um caçador de recompensas fortemente armado, no Moinho de Blazer. Roberts e Dick Brewer, um regulador, foram mortos no tiroteio. A batalha decisiva da Guerra do Condado de Lincoln foi travada durante um tiroteio de cinco dias em Lincoln, em julho de 1878. O tiroteio durou quatro dias, com os Reguladores presos dentro da casa de McSween. No quinto dia, após a chegada do ineficaz Exército dos EUA, a casa de McSween foi incendiada e Kid saiu correndo da casa em chamas. O Kid conseguiu escapar, mas McSween e vários outros foram crivados de balas.

Junto com o que restou dos Reguladores, o Garoto foi banido para sempre. Em dezembro de 1880, o recém-eleito xerife do condado de Lincoln, Pat Garrett, e outros homens da lei capturaram Kid em Stinking Springs. Havia duas acusações federais abertas contra o Kid. O primeiro foi pela morte de Buckshot Roberts, o segundo foi pela morte de um funcionário da reserva Mescalero. A promotoria decidiu que ambas as acusações provavelmente resultariam em absolvição, então decidiu-se julgar Kid pelo assassinato do xerife Brady. O garoto foi considerado culpado e condenado à forca, mas escapou em 28 de abril de 1881, após matar dois guardas. The Kid foi morto a tiros na noite de 14 de julho de 1881, morto por Pat Garrett durante uma emboscada no antigo Forte Sumner.

Centenas de livros, filmes, programas de rádio, programas de televisão e até um balé foram posteriormente inspirados na lenda de Billy the Kid. Como lenda, o Garoto está aberto a uma variedade de interpretações, principalmente como um homem bom que foi mau, como um homem mau que permaneceu mau, como um homem bom que foi falsamente perseguido. Os historiadores também são culpados de usar a vida do Kid para provar uma ou outra tese sobre sua verdadeira natureza. Nada disso tem nada a ver, é claro, com o histórico Billy the Kid que provavelmente matou apenas quatro homens, geralmente em circunstâncias que podem ser concebidas como autodefesa, e que teve a infelicidade de se encontrar do lado perdedor em um mercantil guerra.

Agência Literária Jon Tuska Golden West

Fulton, Maurice Garland. História da Guerra do Condado de Lincoln. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1968.

Tuska, Jon. Billy the Kid: sua vida e lenda. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.


A primeira morte do garoto Henry Antrim contra Windy Cahill

17 de agosto de 1877

É uma noite de sexta-feira e o jovem Henry Antrim está jogando pôquer na Cantina de George Atkins, nos arredores da reserva militar de Fort Grant, no Arizona.

Antrim, cujo sobrenome verdadeiro é McCarty, é um jovem fugitivo (provavelmente 16, talvez 17) que tem roubado selas e cavalos dos soldados no forte. Antrim e o ex-soldado John Mackie se especializam em um método de tag team de agarrar montarias enquanto os soldados estão ocupados no Hog Ranch próximo (gíria do exército para bordel).

Naquela noite, Antrim fica de lado com o ferreiro do forte Frank “Windy” Cahill, que chama o jovem franzino de “cafetão”. Antrim chama o grande irlandês de "filho da puta".

Os dois começam a brigar. O homem mais velho joga o menino no chão várias vezes, finalmente prendendo os braços de Antrim com os joelhos e dando um tapa no rosto do menino.

Apesar de estar preso ao chão, o menino consegue resgatar a pistola da cintura da calça. Os espectadores relatam um "rugido ensurdecedor" quando o menino atira à queima-roupa na barriga do ferreiro. Cahill cai para o lado.

O menino se contorce e corre para fora, onde agarra o cavalo mais rápido - Cashaw - que pertence a John Murphy. O assassino recém-formado, que mais tarde ganharia notoriedade como Billy the Kid, empurra a montanha para o leste, em direção ao Novo México.

Palavras morrendo

As últimas palavras do ferreiro estão impressas no Arizona Weekly Star em 23 de agosto: “Eu, Frank Cahill, estando convencido de que estou prestes a morrer, faço o seguinte como minha declaração final. Meu nome é Frank P. Cahill. Nasci no condado e cidade de Galway, Irlanda ontem, 17 de agosto de 1877, tive alguns problemas com Henry Antrem [sic], também conhecido como Kid, durante o qual ele atirou em mim. Eu tinha chamado ele de cafetão e ele me chamou de filho da puta a gente então se agarrou eu não bati nele, acho que vi ele ir buscar a pistola e tentei pegar, mas não conseguiu e ele atirou na barriga, tenho uma irmã chamada Margaret Flannigan que mora em East Cambridge, Massachusetts, e outra chamada Kate Conden, que mora em San Francisco. ”

Resultado: Odds & amp Ends

O gutshot Frank Cahill foi levado para perto de Fort Grant, onde o cirurgião assistente Fred Crayton Ainsworth fez o que pôde para salvá-lo. No dia seguinte, o cirurgião percebeu que Windy não sobreviveria ao ferimento. O tabelião Miles Wood (que já havia prendido Henry Antrim e o conduzido para o Forte Grant antes de sua fuga) foi convocado para o forte. Ele pegou a declaração de Cahill no leito de morte (à esquerda). Cahill morreu em agonia e foi enterrado no cemitério dos correios no domingo, 19 de agosto.

Miles Wood, além de tabelião público, era também juiz de paz. Ele organizou um inquérito médico legista, convocando como jurados seis locais: Milton McDowell, George Teague, T. McCleary, B.E. Norton, James L. Hunt e D.H. Smith. Eles rapidamente chegaram a um veredicto de que o assassinato de Cahill fora "criminoso e injustificável, e que o pseudônimo de Henry Antrim é o culpado".

Kid Antrim fugiu de volta para Silver City, Novo México, área onde se juntou a um bando errante de bandidos liderados pelo notório John Kinney. O grupo viajou para o leste, pousando em Mesilla. Depois de uma possível passagem pela prisão perto de lá, os meninos viajaram para Lincoln, onde o jovem Henry se envolveu na Guerra do Condado de Lincoln. Em algum momento, ele mudou seu nome para um pseudônimo, William Bonney. No último ano de sua vida, 1880-1881, ele ficou conhecido como Billy the Kid.

Recomendado: O Oeste de Billy the Kid por Frederick Nolan, publicado pela University of Oklahoma Press. Antrim é o nome do meu padrasto por Jerry Weddle, publicado pela Arizona Historical Society.

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Billy the Kid

Na noite de 14 de julho de 1881, Xerife Pat Garrett assassinado fora da lei Billy the Kid no Fort Sumner. Garrett recentemente pegou o garoto, que foi condenado a enforcamento por matar outro xerife, mas Billy conseguiu escapar. Garrett se envolveu novamente quando ouviu uma dica de que o Kid estava escondido no Forte.

Você pode ler tudo sobre a noite passada de Billy do ponto de vista do homem que atirou nele. Um ano depois de puxar o gatilho, Pat Garrett escreveu e publicou um relato do que aconteceu naquela noite, e você pode encontrar esse relato aqui.

Billy the Kid pedia perdão póstumo pelo assassinato pelo qual seria enforcado. Bill Richardson, o governador do Novo México, se recusou a prosseguir com o perdão.

Billy the Kid merece o perdão que lhe foi prometido?
10 de agosto de 2010

Para todos vocês, aficionados do Velho Oeste, aqui está um post que com certeza será interessante!

Billy the Kid tem sido um dos muitos nomes associados ao Velho Oeste, ao lado de Bob Dalton Gang, Butch Cassidy e Sundance Kid, Cole Younger, Jesse James e outros. O que você pode não saber é que o garoto morto há muito tempo pode ser perdoado pelo atual governador do Novo México, Bill Richardson. Então, por que o notório Billy the Kid aceita esse perdão, você pergunta? Bem, deixe-me explicar começando com uma pequena lição de história.

Billy the Kid - nascido como William Henry McCarty, mas também conhecido como William H. Bonney - veio originalmente de Nova York. Ainda jovem, sua família se mudou para o Novo México. Infelizmente, quando Kid tinha quinze anos, sua mãe faleceu de tuberculose. Foi nesse ponto que muitas fontes dizem que Kid começou sua vida de crime - começando com o roubo e progredindo para o assassinato. Outras fontes afirmam que, sem a orientação dos pais, o Garoto simplesmente teve um péssimo começo de vida. Ele se juntou aos grupos errados e acabou fugindo da lei. Um passo errado em particular na vida do Kid foi sua afiliação com a Guerra do Condado de Lincoln. Como resultado de uma das muitas emboscadas que ocorreram, o xerife do condado de Lincoln, William Brady, e um de seus deputados foram encontrados mortos, baleados por Kid. Billy se tornou um fugitivo.

Em algum momento após esses assassinatos, Lew Wallace tornou-se governador do Novo México. Agora, as histórias do que realmente aconteceu em seguida parecem conflitar, então basta dizer que o Garoto acabou preso. Ele fez um acordo com o governador de que, caso testemunhasse contra as pessoas envolvidas na Guerra do Condado de Lincoln, receberia perdão total por envolvimento na morte do xerife Brady e outros delitos. O Kid testemunhou como prometido, mas o perdão nunca foi concedido. Então, o Kid escapou da custódia e iludiu a lei pelos próximos dois anos.

Durante o tempo de Kid como um fora-da-lei, Pat Garrett foi eleito xerife e enviado atrás dele. Mais uma vez, Billy the Kid acabou preso. Desta vez, porém, ele foi condenado à forca pela morte do xerife Brady. Enquanto estava na prisão, Kid escapou novamente - desta vez matando dois guardas no processo. Mais uma vez, o xerife Garrett foi enviado atrás do garoto. A próxima vez que o Kid encontrasse o xerife, entretanto, seria a última.

Em 14 de julho de 1881, o xerife Garrett, sob a cobertura das sombras, matou Billy the Kid em uma residência em Fort Sumner. Alguns acreditam que o garoto viveu como “Brushy Bill” Roberts, mas outros acreditam que o garoto foi de fato enterrado no dia seguinte no cemitério de Fort Sumner. Em algum momento, devido ao debate, houve um movimento para que os supostos corpos do Garoto e de sua mãe fossem exumados para testes de DNA. Um juiz aparentemente decidiu contra os esforços, mas isso não impediu o interesse do governador Richardson no caso. Ele continua a investigar se Kid merece o perdão póstumo, conforme prometido pelo governador Wallace. Como você pode imaginar, há muita controvérsia decorrente dessa investigação - de que lado você se juntará? Clique aqui para assinar uma petição de perdão de Billy the Kid, ou clique aqui para assinar uma petição contra esse perdão.

Truques são para crianças
30 de dezembro de 2010

O governador do Novo México, Bill Richardson, tem poucas horas para decidir se perdoa ou não “Billy the Kid” pelo assassinato de um xerife. O caso remonta a 1881 ... então, por que o prazo da véspera de Ano Novo, você pode perguntar? É o último dia do mandato de Richardson.

Para aqueles de vocês coçando a cabeça se perguntando quem é Billy the Kid, ele é o bandido ocidental também conhecido como William Bonney. Ele morreu pela arma do xerife Pat Garrett aos 21 anos. Apesar de sua pouca idade, Kid teria matado entre 9 e 21 homens. O vice-chefe de gabinete de Richardson, Eric Witt, quer esclarecer que eles não estão oferecendo um perdão geral por todos os crimes de Kid, mas sim um perdão pelo caso individual de matar um xerife.

Richardson é um conhecido aficionado por Billy the Kid e está considerando o perdão por causa de uma alegada promessa do governador Lew Wallace. Ele afirma: “Pense em toda a boa publicidade que o Novo México está recebendo ao redor do mundo sobre isso ... É divertido”. A questão decisiva gira em torno da crença de que Wallace prometeu esse perdão em troca do conhecimento de Kid em um caso de assassinato envolvendo três homens. Aqueles que se opõem ao perdão argumentam que não há prova de que o governador Wallace tenha oferecido alguém que possa simplesmente ter enganado Kid para oferecer informações. O descendente de Lew Wallace, William Wallace, argumenta que perdoar Billy the Kid "declararia que Lew Wallace foi um mentiroso desonroso".

Alguns daqueles a favor do perdão de Kid entraram com uma petição, incluindo o advogado de defesa Randi McGinn, que se ofereceu para cuidar do caso gratuitamente. Ela escreve: “Uma promessa é uma promessa e deve ser cumprida”. McGinn também diz que Wallace garantiu a Kid que ele tinha autoridade para isentá-lo de processo caso ele cooperasse e compartilhasse seu conhecimento, mas que Wallace nunca reteve sua parte no negócio.

O neto do xerife Pat Garrett, J.P. Garrett, argumenta que Richardson deveria ter designado um historiador imparcial para ajudar no caso e acredita que o envolvimento de McGinn pode ser um conflito de interesses. Richardson nomeou Charles Daniels para a Suprema Corte estadual, com quem McGinn é casado. William Wallace concorda, também citando que McGinn tem “poucas qualificações”. Apesar dessas acusações, McGinn afirma que seu único vínculo com a administração é que ela se ofereceu para cuidar do caso de graça por causa do interesse de Richardson em Billy the Kid.

Richardson disse à Associated Press na quarta-feira: “Não sei onde vou parar. Eu posso não perdoá-lo. Mas então eu posso ”. Acho que todos teremos que aguardar ansiosamente o resultado do destino judicial deste falecido fora-da-lei.

Perdão não concedido
3 de janeiro de 2011

O governador do Novo México, Bill Richardson, se recusou a perdoar o fora-da-lei ocidental Billy the Kid durante suas últimas horas no cargo. O perdão foi em nome do assassinato do xerife William Brady em 1878. O que motivou essa decisão de última hora? No programa “Good Morning America” da ABC, na sexta-feira, Richardson explicou que as evidências do caso simplesmente não justificavam o perdão. Ele afirmou que se decidiu contra o perdão, "por causa da falta de conclusividade e da ambigüidade histórica do motivo pelo qual o governador Wallace renegou sua promessa".


Filho bastardo de Billy? A verdadeira história por trás de Paulita Maxwell e seu relacionamento com o fora-da-lei.

Incluída no álbum de Paulita está uma foto não identificada que poderia ser de seu único filho, Telesfor José (à esquerda). Alguns historiadores suspeitam que esta seja na verdade uma foto de William “Julian” Maxwell, o filho ilegítimo de Lucien Maxwell e uma índia americana. Robert G. McCubbin, um autenticador de fotografia do Velho Oeste e editor emérito da True West, concorda com o último.
- Todas as fotos cortesia de Judi Flanner Arbogast, bisneta de José e Paulita Maxwell, do álbum de recortes pessoal de Paulita, salvo indicação em contrário Maxwell com livro cortesia da Sociedade Histórica do Colorado -

O romance intenso, quente, húmido e ilícito entre Henry “Billy the Kid” McCarty de 20 anos e Paulita Maxwell de 16 anos foi aceito mundialmente como um fato. O fato de o notório fora-da-lei ter transformado Paulita em uma conquista sexual torna a história emocionante. No entanto, Paulita nunca foi um interesse amoroso, muito menos uma amante, do Garoto. Nem um fragmento de evidência apóia essa história.

A tradição popular afirma que Paulita e o Garoto tiveram um romance antes da captura do Garoto em 23 de dezembro de 1880 e depois de sua fuga da prisão em 28 de abril de 1881. O Garoto morreu em 14 de julho de 1881. Para que seu suposto filho do amor nascesse legítima, a influente mãe de Paulita, Luz, e o irmão mais velho, Peter, encurralaram Paulita em um casamento forçado, em janeiro de 1882, com um pastor de ovelhas ingênuo, José Felix Jaramillo.

Na realidade, o casamento Maxwell-Jaramillo envolveu um casal apaixonado e uma cerimônia católica em Fort Sumner, Território do Novo México, planejada ao longo de vários meses. Parentes de ambas as famílias viajaram mais de 175 milhas para participar.

Os Maxwell e a família Jaramillo se conheciam há mais de uma década e talvez antes de Lucien Bonaparte Maxwell ter mudado a família e dezenas de amigos e trabalhadores para Fort Sumner em 1871.

O noivo tinha uma fazenda de ovelhas perto da propriedade de seu irmão mais velho, Telesfor, na área de Los Lunas, no condado de Valência. Mais de uma semana antes do casamento, Telesfor e sua esposa por oito anos, Sofia Maxwell Jaramillo, irmã mais velha de Paulita, partiram para sua longa viagem ao Fort Sumner, de carroça, para se juntar à celebração.

Os Jaramillos eram pelo menos tão ricos e respeitados quanto os Maxwell e eram imunes a serem forçados a um casamento que não queriam. A verdade é que Paulita e José se amavam.

A visão de Paulita Maxwell conhecida pela maioria dos aficionados da história é a que
dela segurando um livro. Seu álbum de fotos pessoal revela mais fotos de
Paulita desde a juventude até a velhice.

O casamento aconteceu 18 meses depois de a morte do garoto em 15 de julho de 1881.

On January 14, 1883, Paulita, two months shy of her 19th birthday, married José, 21, during a Sunday mass officiated by Father A. Reden.

After mass, a reception followed that included just about everyone in the area. The celebration carried on until the wee hours of the next morning.

The newlyweds spent their wedding night in the Maxwell home in Fort Sumner. On January 16 or 17, the extended Maxwell and Jaramillo families left Fort Sumner with the bride and groom and traveled 125 miles to Las Vegas. Due to the tremendous amount of rain in the area along the Pecos River, the wedding party traveled along muddy roads and river banks overrun with floodwaters and suffered from chilling winds throughout the journey.

The weather delayed the wedding party’s arrival to the Plaza Hotel by five days. On January 25, the party arrived at the city’s newest hotel, opened in spring 1882, which offered spacious rooms, modern conveniences, a restaurant and a bar. A day or so later, the wedding photos were taken at a local studio.

The party left mid-week by train via Santa Fe and Albuquerque, then by wagon to José’s sheep ranch near Los Lunas. Upon arrival, the women helped Paulita establish her new household where she and José would live for the next 20 years or so.

Several newspaper articles, along with the Catholic Church’s marriage record, substantiate the 1883—not 1882—year for Paulita and José’s wedding.

But what of Telesfor José Jaramillo, the alleged love child of Paulita and the Kid?

The child was named in honor of José’s brother, Telesfor, who had died unexpectedly in July 1891. And he was not their first-born child. The first of their three children, Adelina, was born in January 1884. Luz was born in November 1890. Telesfor José was born in Fort Sumner on June 7, 1895—14 years after the Kid’s death. No records or family stories reveal Paulita gave birth prior to Adelina.

Telesfor José spent his first 14 years on the family sheep ranch near Los Lunas, then 14 years living with his mother in Fort Sumner, before he moved back to Los Lunas in 1923, marrying Reina Romero. In 1934, Reina bore him one son, Luciano, who, after spending all his life in the same area, passed away in 2004, having never married and no known children. Telesfor José died of cardiac disease at age 64 on September 9, 1959.

Unfortunately for Paulita, by the mid-1890s, José was abusive toward her. She found a retreat at her brother Peter’s and mother’s homes in Fort Sumner, but these havens ended when Peter died in June 1898 and Luz died in July 1900.

Within a few years after the 1900 Federal Census, Paulita separated from José, rather than stay in that relationship, according to family lore. Given the era and the fact that José and Paulita were Catholic, they never divorced or had their marriage annulled. Neither remarried. She retained some of the real estate, as tax records show she paid taxes on land in Valencia County as late as 1917.

In late spring 1909, Paulita moved her children and household to the new site of Fort Sumner, about four miles from the original settlement, with its railroad depot and a boomtown population of nearly 700 residents. She purchased and managed the new Commercial Hotel across from the depot her cousin, Rebecca Beaubien, owned the Pecos Valley Hotel down the street. The 1910 census has 15-year-old Telesfor José living with Paulita.

Paulita, 56, identified herself as a widow when the census came calling in 1920. We don’t know where José was living then we do know he was in Fort Sumner when he met his maker on March 28, 1937.

Whatever the reason the two had parted, Paulita was retired and financially secure, having sold her hotel to an oil company, which freed her son, Telesfor José, 25, to manage her estate. The census also recorded other family members who were living with Paulita: her first daughter, Adelina Adelina’s husband, Joseph Welborn and their daughter.

Unfortunately, Fort Sumner’s boomtown “bust” in the late 1920s left Paulita near penniless by decade’s end. At the time of her death, she had a mere $100 worth of personal property, in addition to her venture real estate purchases.

In the early and mid-1920s, author Walter Noble Burns and others tracked down and interviewed the old-timers who had roamed the New Mexico countryside at the same time as the Kid. Paulita, in her late 50s, and other Old Fort Sumner residents never mentioned she was ever pregnant with the Kid’s child. Paulita stated that she and the Kid had never had a romantic relationship, although she admitted openly that she, like many others, had been infatuated with him and at one point would have married him if he had loved her.

Even after his interview, while writing his 1926 book, The Saga of Billy the Kid, Burns portrayed Paulita in alignment with all the unfounded rumors of a torrid love affair with the Kid. His publisher, who knew his descriptions could not be confirmed, wisely cut parts and modified others to prevent a probable defamation of character lawsuit. The publisher made the right decision.

Burns and those of his ilk do not appreciate the fact that, up to the time of her marriage, Paulita was tightly chaperoned, almost always by her Navajo household servant, Deluvina Maxwell, and by local adult women when she attended bailes and went into town. Even if Paulita had unlikely gotten away, why would she have romanced the Kid in the summer of 1881, after his murderous escape from the Lincoln County Courthouse jail when he had killed two deputy sheriffs, had the law gunning for him and would be hanged on the gallows if captured?

Despite Paulita’s interviews, some writers and TV documentary producers have stretched an unsubstantiated and denied romantic relationship into a ludicrous scenario in which brother Peter alerts Sheriff Pat Garrett of the Kid’s whereabouts in Fort Sumner and allegedly plots with him to ambush the Kid before he could elope with Paulita. Somewhere along the way, this wild, inaccurate tale became accepted as fact.

Paulita and José raised two daughters: Adelina (left) and Luz (above). Paulita passed down her album to Luz, who gave it to her son Charles Flanner. The treasure is now owned by Judi Flanner Arbogast, daughter to Charles and great-granddaughter to Paulita.

After a two-day fight with pneumonia brought on by influenza, Paulita died at 65 on December 17, 1929, at her home on Sumner Avenue in Fort Sumner. Her body was buried in the Old Fort Sumner military cemetery. In 1937, her estranged husband, José, was buried next to her.

Paulita passed away frustrated because the stories of her true relationship with the Kid and the real family she raised with husband José were never accepted. Hopefully, once and for all, the tale that she was the Kid’s lover and gave birth to the Kid’s love child will cease, and Paulita can at last rest in peace.

Robert J. Stahl is a retired history and social studies education professor from the Teachers College at Arizona State University and an officer for the Scottsdale Corral of Westerners International. He gives thanks to his research assistants Nancy Nance Stahl and Marilyn Stahl Fischer.


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

For over eight months in 2001, investigators pursued Clayton Waagner. Authorities apprehended the fugitive after an all-out effort.

But that effort cost an incredible sum in salaries, travel and various services. Senior Inspector Geoff Shank, the Investigative Services Division case coordinator, recalled that costs exceeded $200,000 before Waagner was captured in December.

But closing these cases has never come cheaply. U.S. marshals and their deputies have been chasing down fugitives for 212 years, and even back in the Old West, they ran up fairly hefty tabs while performing their jobs. When factoring in money values of the times, it's no stretch to say that deputies of bygone days faced financial challenges similar to those of their modern day counterparts.

William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid, has a firm place in American history. Legend has it that before he turned 21, he had killed 21 people - the byproduct of being a major player in a turbulent battle between competing cattle empires in southeast New Mexico Territory. Like many legends before and after him, Billy the Kid was hunted by the U.S. Marshals. They spent many long hours in the process. The year was 1881, but just like in present time, these lawmen still had to eat, sleep and buy supplies.

A recent discovery in the National Archives shed some light on the expenses incurred during the famous final chase for Billy the Kid, who was eventually killed July 14, 1881, by Lincoln County (New Mexico) Sheriff Pat Garrett. (S hown on Right is William Bonney, 'Billy the Kid')

On Nov. 20, 1882, U.S. Marshal John Sherman Jr. wrote Attorney General Benjamin Harris Brewster a seven-page letter. Sherman was writing from law offices in Washington, D.C., on a matter of payment. Part of the letter reads as follows:

Voucher 1, $375.00, is for the subsistence of my deputies, and posse, and hire of horses with forage for the same. This expense was incurred in the arrest of William Bonny (sic), known as "Billy the Kid, " charged with murder and passing counterfeit money also for the arrest of an accomplice by the name of Rudebaugh. This man Bonny was a most notorious character. Large rewards had been offered for his arrest by the Territorial authorities, and frequent attempts made to capture him. He was finally captured by my deputy, lodged in jail, and afterwards shot by Deputy Garrett in attempting to escape. The whole expense in making this arrest was $1.072.00, all of which has been allowed by accounting officers with the exception of $375.00, which they say is in the nature of an extraordinary expense, and requires your approval before it can be allowed. (Pat Garrett shown on left)

In this case, as with many similar instances, Sherman's request for the additional reimbursement was disallowed because the original payments were already settled. Attorney General Brewster could have appealed to President Chester Arthur for funding. but it was often countermanded by the advice of the U.S. Treasury, which operated under strict guidelines.

While $375 does not seem like much today, it was costly in 1882. And Sherman's case was not that obscure. In the 1860s Dakota Territory, it was not always possible to make a straight line in order to reach an objective - especially with Indians in the way. U.S. Marshal L.H. Litchfield, disappointed that one of his official expense reports to serve process shortchanged him $465.35, wrote to the comptroller of the currency in Washington to justify his bill for travel. Diz:

The necessity for so much travel is apparent . In this case it became my duty to travel 1,200 miles to serve & the same to return the attachment & the same to serve and return the execution making a distance of 4,800 miles traveled. Almost the entire country between here & Fort Abercrombie (where the goods were) in a direct route is inhabited by Indians alone . Consequently, the only feasible route is from here south to Sioux City, Iowa. thence east across the entire length of Iowa to the Mississippi River, thence to St. Cloud, Minnesota, thence west to Dakota, making three right angles. In conclusion I have only to say that the services were performed as economically as possible and the amount ($465.35) is just1y due me.

U.S. Marshal Henry White of West Virginia knew all about money squabbles with Washington. He served from April 1889 until May 1893, and his entire tenure was plagued by the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys.

When Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield was arrested for violating revenue laws, Marshal White needed extra guards. He was meticulous in tracking his expenses - such as the charge of 86 miles at 10 cents per mile. White's group contained 10 guards, including three Hatfields. This was a preventative measure, as ambushes were common and bounty hunters were trying to capture Devil Anse. The Hatfields apparently favored the marshals to the McCoys.


6 Buckshot Roberts Defeats Billy the Kid's Entire Gang by Himself

Andrew "Buckshot" Roberts is probably best known for killing Charlie Sheen while taking a dump in Young Guns. The actual story of that day is no less amazing.

You see, Billy the Kid (the famous gunfighter and co-author of Bill and Ted's history report) and his gang the Regulators had a warrant for Roberts' arrest, implicating him in the murder of a rancher named John Tunstall, whom Billy used to work for. Roberts didn't actually have anything to do with Tunstall's death, but he was a shit-kicking Texas outlaw who didn't shy away from gunfights, so when Billy and his gang staged an ambush, Roberts was more than happy to engage in a free exchange of bullets.

That's right -- rather than surrender when he realized he was surrounded by 14 Regulators (that's enough guys to field one and a half heavily armed baseball teams), Roberts instead told them all to go straight to hell.

As the battle commenced, Roberts was hit in the groin almost immediately, which would've taken the fight out of Quick Draw McGraw himself. But Roberts continued firing until his rifle was empty, wounding three Regulators and taking them out of the fight. Billy the Kid tried to take advantage of Roberts' dick wound by rushing him, but Roberts took his empty rifle and clubbed the blazing pigshit out of him.

Roberts retreated into a house to reload, where Regulator Dick Brewer (Charlie Sheen's character in the movie) tried to sneak up on him. Roberts spotted Brewer and blasted his head into skull-and-brains confetti. At that point, Billy the Kid decided it was way too early in the day for any more of this bullshit and ordered his gang to beat feet, leaving Buckshot Roberts alone to bleed to death a day later. Go back and read that sentence again -- one of the most famous gunfighters in history, backed up by his entire gang, wasn't enough to bring the mortally wounded Buckshot Roberts down.

Related: 6 Baffling Robert Pattinson Stories That Raise More Questions Than Answers


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

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William Bonney, known to the world as Billy the Kid, was involved in his first murder today in 1877. As with many famous people from the era of the American Wild West, his legend is much larger than his stature in real life. Although he has been dead for 125 years, Billy the Kid still defines the image of the young, sharp-shooting outlaw.

The man who would one day be called Billy the Kid used several aliases during his short life, including Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William Bonney. Since little is known about his youth or his parents, his real name has been lost to the dustbin of the ages. He was short, thin and had blue eyes. Most people who met him described him as friendly, but he could also display a fierce temper at a moment's notice. His abilities with a pistol or rifle were legendary but probably true. He had quick senses, which gave him an almost animal-like ability to sense and escape from danger. His instinct alone saved his life more than once.

Billy's story as a fugitive from justice began in 1875, when he escaped from the Silver City, New Mexico jail while being held on charges of theft. He worked as a ranch hand for the next two years before being hired to drive a team of horses for the Camp Grant Army post. He almost immediately developed a confrontational relationship with Frank Cahill, a civilian blacksmith at the post. On August 17th, 1877, Billy and Cahill exchanged heated words, which resulted in Cahill attacking Billy and throwing him to the ground. Cahill was a large man Billy was 17 years old and thin as a rail. Probably out of fear, he drew his pistol and shot Cahill. The blacksmith died the next day, resulting in Billy's arrest. A local Marshal was sent for, but Billy was able to make an escape before a trial could be held.

That fall, Billy showed up in Lincoln County, New Mexico, working as a cattle guard. The residents of the county were fighting a sort of mini-civil war, a conflagration that would come to be known as the Lincoln County Cattle War. The details of the war could fill several thick volumes suffice it to say that Billy ended up riding with a group known as the Regulators, eventually becoming the gang's leader.

As leader of the Regulators, Billy took part in gun battles that resulted in five deaths, most notably Sheriff William Brady. The group was indicted for murder and went on the run for several months. They were finally tracked to a house in Lincoln, where they held out for five days against a posse of deputies and locals. The house was set on fire, forcing the Regulators to face the posse that encircled them. Billy escaped once again. One of the men killed that day was Alexander McSween, a lawyer who was the leader of one side in the county war. With his death, the Lincoln County Cattle War ended.

In the fall of 1878, a general amnesty was proclaimed for anyone involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. Billy was living in Texas at this time and was still under indictment for Sheriff William Brady's murder. However, he came forward and offered to testify against other gun fighters if he was granted amnesty. The state agreed to this concession and Billy turned himself in. After testifying, however, he was returned to jail. As he had proven many times in the past, Billy was not fond of the iron bars of a cell. Before any action could be taken against him, he once again freed himself and headed out of town.

Billy became a cattle rustler and gambler for the next 18 months and was involved in several shootings. The activities of his gang drew attention, and not in a good way. The group was hunted by a posse looking for cattle thieves and Billy once again found himself trapped in a house surrounded by armed men. But the posse accidently shot one of their own men, at which point they broke up and allowed Billy and his crew to escape.

Billy's reputation had grown, so much so that newly-elected sheriff Pat Garrett put a $500 bounty on his head. He and his posse were soon surrounded, captured and hauled off the town of Mesilla to wait for trial. He was convicted of murdering Sheriff Brady after a one day proceeding and was sentenced to hang. While being held in the top room of the local courthouse, Billy killed his two guards and escaped. How he managed to do this remains a mystery, but it is believed that he may have slipped out of his handcuffs and grabbed one of the deputies' weapons.

Billy the Kid met his end on July 14, 1881 at Pete Maxwell's house near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Sheriff Garrett came to the house to question Maxwell about Billy's whereabouts, not knowing that the 21-year old was only a room away. The exact events of the evening are shaded by time, but one thing is certain: Pat Garrett shot Billy twice, killing him instantly. He was buried the next day in Fort Sumner's cemetery between two of his Regulator companions.

Much has been made of Billy the Kid's body count. Legend has it that he killed 21 men, one for every year of his life. The truth, however, is much less sensational. Most likely, Billy was involved in 9 murders 5 in which he was with a gang and four when he was alone. One year after he died, Pat Garrett, the sheriff who killed Billy, published a book entitled 'The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid', which was wildly inaccurate and told many of the fanciful tales that survive to this day. The legend was born.


Billy the Kid arrested for first time in 1875

On this day in 1875, Billy the Kid is arrested for the first time after stealing a basket of laundry. He later broke out of jail and roamed the American West, eventually earning a reputation as an outlaw and murderer and a rap sheet that allegedly included 21 murders.

The exact details of Billy the Kid’s birth are unknown, other than his name, William Henry McCarty. He was probably born sometime between 1859 and 1861, in Indiana or New York. As a child, he had no relationship with his father and moved around with his family, living in Indiana, Kansas, Colorado and Silver City, New Mexico. His mother died in 1874 and Billy the Kid—who went by a variety of names throughout his life, including Kid Antrim and William Bonney—turned to crime soon afterward.

McCarty did a stint as a horse thief in Arizona before returning to New Mexico, where he hooked up with a gang of gunslingers and cattle rustlers involved in the notorious Lincoln County War between rival rancher and merchant factions in Lincoln County in 1878. Afterward, Billy the Kid, who had a slender build, prominent crooked front teeth and a love of singing, went on the lam and continued his outlaw’s life, stealing cattle and horses, gambling and killing people. His crimes earned him a bounty on his head and he was eventually captured and indicted for killing a sheriff during the Lincoln County War. Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang for his crime however, a short time later, he managed another jail break, murdering two deputies in the process. Billy the Kid’s freedom was brief, as Sheriff Pat Garrett caught up with the desperado at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on July 14, 1881, and fatally shot him.

Although his life was short, Billy the Kid’s legend grew following his death. Today he is a famous symbol of the Old West, along with such men as Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday and Wyatt Earp, and his story has been mythologized and romanticized in numerous films, books, TV shows and songs. Each year, tourists visit the town of Fort Sumner, located about 160 miles southeast of Albuquerque, to see the Billy the Kid Museum and gravesite.


Patrick Floyd Jarvis Garrett was born on June 5, 1850, in Chambers County, Alabama. He was the second of five children born to John Lumpkin Garrett and wife Elizabeth Ann Jarvis. Garrett's four siblings were Margaret, Elizabeth, John, and Alfred. [1] Garrett was of English ancestry, his ancestors migrated to America from the English regions of Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire and Buckinghamshire. [2] [3] When Pat was three years old his father purchased the John Greer plantation in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. The Civil War, however, destroyed the Garrett family's finances. Their mother died on March 25, 1867, at the age of 37. Then the following year, on February 5, 1868, his father died at age 45. The children were left with a plantation that was more than $30,000 in debt. The children were taken in by relatives. The 18-year-old Garrett headed west from Louisiana on January 25, 1869. [1] : 9 [4] : 28

Buffalo hunter Edit

Garrett's whereabouts over the next seven years are obscure. By 1876 he was in Texas hunting buffalo. During this period Garrett killed his first man, another buffalo hunter named Joe Briscoe. Garrett surrendered to the authorities at Fort Griffin, Texas, but they declined to prosecute. [1] : 29–31 When the buffalo hunting declined, Garrett left Texas and rode to the New Mexico Territory. [4] : 267n, 293n When Garrett arrived at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, he found work as a cowboy for Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell.

Family life Edit

Garrett's first wife was Juanita Martinez, who died 15 days after their marriage. [5] The reference Leon C. Metz made about Juanita being the older sister of Pat's second wife Apolonia is unfounded. Apolonia only had a sister by the name of Celsa Gutierrez. [1] On January 14, 1880, Garrett married Apolinaria Gutierrez. [1] : 40–41 [4] : 94–96 Between 1881 and 1905 Apolinaria Garrett gave birth to eight children: Ida, Dudley, Elizabeth, Annie, Patrick, Pauline, Oscar, and Jarvis.

Pursuit of Billy the Kid Edit

Billy the Kid, born Henry McCarty, and also known as William H. Bonney, was wanted for murder in the aftermath of the Lincoln County War. On November 2, 1880, Garrett was elected sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico, having defeated the incumbent, Sheriff George Kimball, by a vote of 320 to 179. [6] Although Garrett's term would not begin until January 1, 1881, Sheriff Kimball appointed him a deputy sheriff for the remainder of Kimball's term. Garrett also obtained a deputy U.S. Marshal's commission, which allowed him to pursue the Kid across county lines. Garrett and his posse stormed the Dedrick ranch at Bosque Grande on November 30, 1880. They expected to find the Kid there, but only succeeded in capturing John Joshua Webb, who had been charged with murder, along with an accused horse thief named George Davis. [7] Garrett turned Webb and Davis over to the sheriff of San Miguel County a few days later, and moved on to the settlement of Puerto de Luna. There a local tough named Mariano Leiva picked a fight with Garrett and was shot in the shoulder. [8]

On December 19, 1880, Billy the Kid, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, Billy Wilson and Tom O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Lying in wait were deputy Garrett and his posse. Mistaking O'Folliard for the Kid, Garrett's men opened fire and killed O'Folliard. [9] Billy and the others escaped unharmed. Three days later, Garrett's posse cornered Billy and his companions at a spot called Stinking Springs. They killed one man and captured the others. [10] On April 15, 1881, Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang by Judge Warren Bristol, but escaped thirteen days later, killing 2 deputies. [11]

On July 14, 1881, Garrett visited Fort Sumner to question a friend of the Kid's about his whereabouts and learned he was staying with a mutual friend, Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell. Around midnight, Garrett went to Maxwell's house. The Kid was asleep in another part of the house, but woke up in the middle of the night and entered Maxwell's bedroom, where Garrett was standing in the shadows. The Kid did not recognize the man standing in the dark. He asked him, repeatedly, "¿Quién es?" ("Who is it?"), and Garrett replied by shooting at him twice. [12] The first shot hit the Kid in the chest just above the heart, while the second missed. Garrett’s account leaves it unclear whether Billy was killed instantly or took some time to die. [13]

His account of Billy the Kid Edit

He coauthored The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid with Ash Upson, [14] and for decades his book was deemed authoritative. [15]

Following Billy the Kid's death, writers quickly went to work producing books and articles that made a folk hero out of Billy the Kid, while making Garrett seem like an assassin. Although filled with many errors of fact, The Authentic Life served afterward as the main source for most books written about the Kid until the 1960s. [16] [17] [18] A failure when originally released, an original copy of the Pat Garrett-Ash Upson book became a rare commodity in 1969 the original 1882 edition of the Garrett-Upson book was described by Ramon F. Adams as being "exceedingly rare." [19] Twentieth-century editions of Garrett's Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid (with alterations to the original title) appeared in 1927, [20] 1946 [21] and 1964. [22]

Texas Ranger Edit

Garrett did not seek re-election as sheriff of Lincoln County in 1882. He moved to Texas, where he ran for office as a state senator and was declined that seat. Garrett became a captain with the Texas Rangers for less than a month, then returned to Roswell, New Mexico. [24]

Irrigation investments and move to Texas Edit

Garrett discovered a large reservoir of artesian water in the Roswell region and went into partnership with two men to organize the "Pecos Valley Irrigation and Investment Company" on July 18, 1885. [25] Garrett kept his irrigation schemes alive for several years, and on January 15, 1887, he purchased a one-third interest in the "Texas Irrigation Ditch Company", but the partners got rid of him. On August 15, 1887, he formed a partnership with William L. Holloman in the "Holloman and Garrett Ditch Company." [26] All of Garrett's forays into the irrigation field, however, resulted in failure. [ citação necessária ] By 1892, Garrett had moved his large family to Uvalde, Texas, where he became close friends with John Nance Garner (1868–1967), a future vice president of the United States. [27] Garrett might have lived out the remainder of his life in Uvalde, had it not been for a headline-making event back in New Mexico.

Disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain Edit

On January 31, 1896, Colonel Albert Jennings Fountain and his eight-year-old son Henry disappeared at the edge of the White Sands area of southern New Mexico. Neither of the Fountains was ever seen again. The mystery was never officially solved, even with the efforts of Apache scouts, the Pinkertons, and an all-out push by the Republican Party. [28] In April 1896, Garrett was appointed sheriff of Doña Ana County, and two years later had gathered sufficient evidence to make arrests, asking a judge in Las Cruces for warrants to arrest Oliver M. Lee, William McNew, Bill Carr and James Gililland. Within hours, he had arrested McNew and Carr. [29]

During the early morning hours of July 12, 1898 Garrett and his posse confronted Oliver M. Lee and James Gililland at a spot called "Wildy Well" near Orogrande, New Mexico. Garrett had hoped to capture the fugitives while they were sleeping, but Lee and Gililland expected trouble and took their bedrolls up to the roof of the bunkhouse to avoid being taken by surprise. One of Garrett's deputies named Kearney heard footsteps on the roof, scaled a ladder, and was mortally wounded by the fugitives. A stray shot nicked Garrett. Due to his concern for his dying deputy, Garrett arranged a truce with the fugitives and withdrew while Kearney was lifted into a wagon. Kearney, however, died on the road to Las Cruces, and Lee and Gililland remained at large for another eight months, before they finally surrendered to Sheriff George Curry. [30] They were found not guilty in the Fountain killings, and the indictments for killing the deputy were also dismissed. [31]

Final kill Edit

Garrett killed his last offender in 1899, a fugitive named Norman Newman, who was wanted for murder in Greer County, Oklahoma. Newman was hiding out at the San Augustin Ranch in New Mexico. Sheriff George Blalock of Greer County went to New Mexico and asked Garrett for his assistance. The lawmen and Jose Espalin, one of Garrett's deputies, rode to the ranch, and on October 7, 1899, Newman was killed in a gunfight. [32]

Presidential appointment in El Paso Edit

On December 16, 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Garrett to the post of collector of customs in El Paso. [33] He also became one of President Roosevelt's three "White House Gunfighters" (Bat Masterson and Ben Daniels being the others). [34] Despite public outcry over his appointment, Garrett was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 2, 1902. [35] Garrett's tenure as El Paso's collector of customs was stormy from the start. On May 8, 1903, he got into a public fistfight with an employee named George Gaither. The following morning, both Garrett and Gaither paid five dollar fines for disturbing the peace. [36] Continued complaints about Garrett's alleged incompetence were sent to Washington. [37] Through it all, President Roosevelt stood by Garrett. As a show of his support, Roosevelt invited Garrett to attend a Rough Riders reunion being held in San Antonio during April 1905. Since Garrett had not been a member of that regiment, Roosevelt's invitation was taken as a snub at those critics who wanted Garrett replaced from his post. Garrett brought a guest of his own to the event named Tom Powers. Garrett introduced Powers to the president as "a prominent Texas cattleman." Garrett and Powers posed for two photographs with Roosevelt, first standing with him in a group and later seated with Roosevelt at dinner. [38] Garrett's enemies obtained copies of the photos and sent them to Roosevelt, informing the president that instead of being the "cattleman" that Garrett claimed, Powers was, in fact, the owner of a "notorious dive" in El Paso called the Coney Island Saloon. That was the final straw for Roosevelt, who replaced Garrett with a new collector of customs on January 2, 1906. [39]

Financial problems Edit

Following his dismissal, Garrett returned with his family to New Mexico. Garrett was in deep financial difficulty. His ranch had been heavily mortgaged, and when he was unable to make payments, the county auctioned off all of Garrett's personal possessions to satisfy judgments against him. The total from the auction came to $650. [40] President Roosevelt had appointed Pat's friend George Curry as the territorial governor of New Mexico. Garrett met with Curry, who promised him the position of superintendent of the territorial prison at Santa Fe, once he was inaugurated. Since Curry's inauguration was still months away, the destitute Garrett left his family in New Mexico and returned to El Paso, where he found employment with the real estate firm of H.M. Maple and Company. During this period Garrett moved in with a woman known as "Mrs. Brown", who was described as an El Paso prostitute. [41] When Governor-elect Curry learned of his involvement with Brown, the promised appointment of prison superintendent was withdrawn. [42]

Last conflict and death Edit

Dudley Poe Garrett, Pat's son, had signed a five-year lease for his Bear Canyon Ranch with Jesse Wayne Brazel. [43] Garrett and his son objected when Brazel began bringing in large herds of goats, which were anathema to cattlemen like Garrett. Garrett tried to break the lease when he learned that the money for Brazel's operation had been put up by his neighbor, W. W. "Bill" Cox. He was further angered when he learned that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode was Brazel's partner in the huge goat herd. [44] When Brazel refused, the matter went to court. At this point James B. Miller met with Garrett to try to solve the problem. Miller met with Brazel, who agreed to cancel his lease with Garrett – provided a buyer could be found for his herd of 1,200 goats. Carl Adamson, who was related to Miller by marriage, agreed to buy the 1,200 goats. Just when the matter seemed resolved, Brazel claimed that he had "miscounted" his goat herd, claiming there were actually 1,800 – rather than his previous estimate of 1,200. Adamson refused to buy that many goats, but agreed to meet with Garrett and Brazel to see if they could reach some sort of agreement.

Garrett and Carl Adamson rode together, heading from Las Cruces, New Mexico in Adamson's wagon. Brazel appeared on horseback along the way. Garrett was shot and killed, but exactly by whom remains the subject of controversy. Brazel and Adamson left the body by the side of the road and returned to Las Cruces, where Brazel surrendered to Deputy Sheriff Felipe Lucero. More than thirty years later, Lucero claimed that Brazel exclaimed, "Lock me up. I've just killed Pat Garrett!" Brazel then pointed to Adamson and said, "He saw the whole thing and knows that I shot in self-defense." [45] Lucero incarcerated Brazel, summoned a coroner's jury, and rode to Garrett's death site. Brazel's trial for Garrett's murder concluded on May 4, 1909. [46] Brazel was represented at his trial by attorney and future Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall. The only eyewitness to Garrett's murder, Adamson, never appeared at the trial, which lasted only one day and ended with an acquittal. [47] [48] [49]

Identity of the murderer Edit

The coroner's report on Garrett's death states that Brazel shot Garrett. [50] Brazel reportedly confessed, but was acquitted at trial. Four other suspects have been proposed: Adamson, Cox, Rhode, and Miller. In a book published in 1970, Glenn Shirley gave his reasons for naming Miller as the killer of Pat Garrett. [51] Leon C. Metz in his 1974 biography of Garrett related the claim of W.T. Moyers that "his investigations led him to believe that [W. W.] Cox himself ambushed and killed Garrett.", [52] but also wrote that "[t]he Garrett family believes that Carl Adamson pulled the trigger." [53] In his 2010 book on Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett, Mark Lee Gardner suggests that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode killed Garrett. [54]

Death site Edit

The site of Garrett's death is now commemorated by a historical marker south of U.S. Route 70, between Las Cruces, New Mexico and the San Augustin Pass. [55] [56] The historical marker is located about 1.2 miles from where Garrett was murdered. In 1940 his son, Jarvis Garrett, marked the spot with a monument consisting of concrete laid around a stone with a cross carved in it. The cross is believed to be the work of Garrett's mother. Scratched in the concrete is "P. Garrett" and the date of his killing. The marker is located in the desert. [57] The city of Las Cruces plans a development that would destroy the site. An organization called Friends of Pat Garrett has been formed to ensure that the city preserves the site and marker. [58] [59]

Funeral and burial site Edit

Garrett's body was too tall for any finished coffins available, so a special one had to be shipped in from El Paso. His funeral service was held March 5, 1908, and he was laid to rest next to his daughter, Ida, who had died in 1896 at the age of fifteen. Garrett's grave and the graves of his descendants are in the Masonic Cemetery, Las Cruces. [59]

Garrett has been a character in many films and television shows, and has been portrayed by:


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